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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CSCI/PHIL-4550/6550 (IT’S FOR REAL) DON POTTER Institute for Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science Department UGA. AI @ UGA * - Originated around 1985. * - First MS degree awarded: 1988.

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

CSCI/PHIL-4550/6550

(IT’S FOR REAL)

DON POTTER

Institute for Artificial Intelligence

and

Computer Science Department

UGA


  • AI @ UGA

    • * - Originated around 1985.

    • * - First MS degree awarded: 1988.

    • * - We follow an interdisciplinary approach based on logic programming.

    • Participants: Computer Science, Philosophy, Psychology, Linguistics, Engineering, Business, Forestry


What is Artificial Intelligence anyway?

“The science of making machines do things that would require intelligence if done by people” Marvin Minsky

I like: “the science of making machines exhibit intelligent behavior”

Neither is an attempt to make a human nor some superior being.


  • INTELLIGENT BEHAVIOR

  • (or stuff people are good at)

    • * - Problem Solving

    • * - Learning

    • * - Planning

    • * - Perception

    • * - Language Processing

    • * - Collecting Stuff

    • * - Independent Action


We’re scheduling a single elimination tennis tournament with 200 players.

How many matches will we have?


COOL DUDES with 200 players.

Charles Babbage considered intelligent devices long ago. Lady Lovelace?

Alan Turing brought the notion up to date with some math foundations and a test (called the TURING TEST).

John McCarthy coined the name Artificial Intelligence.


TURING TEST with 200 players.

Interrogator

Guy

Girl

Replace the guy with a machine. If the interrogator can’t tell,

then the machine has exhibited intelligence.



  • AUTOMATA THEORY with 200 players.

  • Finite Automatons

  • Pushdown Automatons

  • Linear Bounded Automatons

  • Unbounded Automatons (aka Turning Machines, a math model of a computer)


  • COMPLEXITY THEORY with 200 players.

  • Solvable Problems

  • Unsolvable Problems

  • COMPUTABILITY THEORY

  • Decidable Problems

  • Undecidable Problems


Can a problem be solved (or can I prove that it is unsolvable)?

If it can be solved, is it easy to solve or hard to solve?

If it is easy, then develop the algorithm and solve it.

If it is hard to solve then try using artificial intelligence techniques.


HARD PROBLEMS unsolvable)?

Search Space too big to be searched in a reasonable time by a typical (good) algorithm.

In AI, we use heuristics (rules of thumb learned via experience).

E.g., Medical Diagnosis


From PHILOSOPHY unsolvable)?

* Logic

* Knowledge

* lots more neat stuff

From PSYCHOLOGY

* Learning

* Comprehension

* sure, more neat stuff

From LINGUISTICS

* Language

* Language Processing

* yea, more neat stuff


PHYSICAL SYMBOL unsolvable)?

SYSTEM HYPOTHESIS

Using symbol manipulation, we can achieve intelligent behavior in machines/devices.

Newell & Simon


15-Puzzle unsolvable)?

Water Jug Puzzle (9 & 4 want 6)

Farmer, Fox, Goat, Grain

Pick up sticks (two player, go 2nd)

Lily Pond problem

Counterfeit Coins (81, 12)

Fast Falcon (45mph)


  • WHAT DO WE NEED? unsolvable)?

    • Start State

    • Goal State

    • Representation

    • Operators (recall PSSH)

    • * Heuristics, the good stuff


  • Problem Specs:

  • infinite water supply,

  • no markings on the jugs

  • can fill, transfer, and empty

  • Start State: Both Jugs Empty (9,0) & (4,0)

  • 9-Gallon Jug

    4-Gallon Jug


  • Start State: Both Jugs Empty (9,0) & (4,0)

  • Goal: Six Gallons in 9-Gallon Jug (9,6) (4,_)

  • Representation: (Jug ID , Gallons)

  • Operators:

  • fill 9-gallon jug, empty 9-gallon jug

  • fill 4-gallon jug, empty 4-gallon jug

  • transfer contents (no overflow)

  • from 9-gall to 4-gall

  • from 4-gall to 9-gall


  • Step 0: (9,0) (4,0) unsolvable)?

    Step 1: (9,9) (4,0)

    Step 2: (9,5) (4,4)

    Step 3: (9,5) (4,0)

    Step 4: (9,1) (4,4)

    Step 5: (9,1) (4,0)

    Step 6: (9,0) (4,1)

    Step 7: (9,9) (4,1)

    Step 8: (9,6) (4,4)







    • RECENT PROJECTS unsolvable)?

      • Aerial Spray Optimization

      • Peanut Harvest Optimization

      • Medication Testing/Analysis

      • Snake Hunting (special math problem)

      • Intelligent ISs and DSSs

      • Weather Prediction

      • Robotics


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