The u s military in the interwar years
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The U.S. Military in the Interwar Years. Army duties just after the War. Guarding Mexican border: 1919-20 Occupation forces in Germany: 1918-23 Missions into the Soviet Union: 1918-20 China garrison (Tientsin) Coping with domestic disturbances: 1919-20. Demobilization.

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The U.S. Military in the Interwar Years

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The u s military in the interwar years

The U.S. Military in the Interwar Years


Army duties just after the war

Army duties just after the War

  • Guarding Mexican border: 1919-20

  • Occupation forces in Germany: 1918-23

  • Missions into the Soviet Union: 1918-20

  • China garrison (Tientsin)

  • Coping with domestic disturbances: 1919-20


Demobilization

Demobilization

  • 3,250,000 men released by August 1919

  • By end of 1919, Army strength at:

    • 205,000 enlisted men

    • 19,000 officers

    • all volunteers


National defense act of 1920

National Defense Act of 1920

  • Creates the Army of the United States, composed of:

    • professional Regular Army

    • National Guard units

    • “Organized Reserves”


The regular army and the 1920 act

The Regular Army and the 1920 Act

  • Maximum size of 280,000.

  • Responsibilities:

    • Provide troops for overseas garrisons, border defense, expeditionary forces

    • Train army’s civilian components

      • Guard

      • Reserves


Other aspects of the 1920 act

Other aspects of the 1920 Act

  • Bolstered importance of ROTC.

  • Allocated responsibility for economic mobilization/planning to the Assistant Secretary of War

  • Division became basic Army unit.


War plan orange

War Plan Orange

  • U.S. military considered Japan most likely belligerent in years after WWI.


The washington conference of 1921 22

The Washington Conference of 1921-22

  • Five Power Treaty - Limits on capital ship construction:

    • Total fleet tonnage ratio

    • Ship tonnage & gun size limit

    • 10-year building “holiday”

  • Four Power Treaty

  • Nine Power Treaty


1930 s developments

1930’s Developments

  • London Conference of 1930:

    • Tonnage ratios for cruisers.

    • Building holiday for capital ships extended.

  • Japan walks out of 1935 London Conference.

    • Renounces naval treaties in 1936.

  • U.S. naval construction legislation.

    • Vinson-Trammell Act, 1934.

    • Naval Act of 1938.


Naval advances

Naval Advances

  • Carriers

  • Submarines

  • Amphibious tactics


American prophet of air power

American Prophet of Air Power

  • Billy Mitchell

  • Italian Prophet:

    Guilio Douhet


1921 navy bombing tests

1921 Navy Bombing Tests

  • Ostfriesland sunk in Chesapeake Bay


Organization of u s military aviation

Organization of U.S. Military Aviation

  • 1920: Air Service becomes a branch of the Army.

  • 1926: Air Service becomes the Air Corps.

    • Assistant Secretary for War (Air) created

    • Air officers added to General Staff

    • Force expansion


Father of naval aviation

“Father” of Naval Aviation

  • William A. Moffett

    • Becomes chief of Navy’s new Bureau of Aeronautics in 1921.


Pre war focus of army air corps

Pre-War Focus of Army Air Corps:

  • Bombing

    • particularly industrial targets.

    • eschewed bombing civilians


What about the rest of the army

What about the rest of the Army?

  • During 1920’s & most of 1930’s:

    • undermanned

    • scattered

    • minimal resources for new weapons

    • some planning for economic mobilization

      • Industrial Mobilization Plan of 1930


Douglas macarthur army chief of staff 1930 35

Douglas MacArthur,Army Chief of Staff, 1930-35

  • Reorganization:

    • Sought to create a force that could deploy quickly in case of emergency.

    • Created four Army HQ’s.

    • Pushed mechanization of Regular divisions.

    • Included National Guard units.


Some weapon improvements

Some weapon improvements

  • M-1 Garand semiautomatic rifle

  • 105mm howitzer

  • 60 & 81mm mortars


Tanks

Tanks?


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