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Chapter 21. Blood Vessels. Direction of Flow. Heart to aorta to arteries to arterioles to capillaries. Capillaries to venules to veins to vena cava to heart. Arteries. Veins. Capillaries form Microcirculation Microscopic vessels that connect arterioles to venules

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Chapter 21
Chapter 21

BloodVessels


Direction of flow
Direction of Flow

Heart to aorta to arteries to arterioles to capillaries.

Capillaries to venules to veins to vena cava to heart.


Arteries

Arteries

Veins


  • Capillaries form Microcirculation

  • Microscopic vessels that connect arterioles to venules

  • Found near every cell in the body but more extensive in highly active tissue (muscles, liver, kidneys & brain)

    • entire capillary bed fills with blood when tissue is active

    • lacking in epithelia, cornea and lens of eye & cartilage

  • Function is exchange of nutrients & wastes between blood and tissue fluid

  • Structure is single layer of simple squamous epithelium and its basement membrane


Capillaries 1 continuous 2 fenestrated 3 sinusoid
Capillaries:1. Continuous2. Fenestrated3. Sinusoid



Blood distribution
Blood Distribution

  • 12% pulmonary vessels

  • 8 % = heart

  • 15% = systemic arteries and arterioles

  • 5% = capillaries

  • 60% = systemic veins and venules


Venous flow occurs by:1. muscle contraction2. respiratory pump3. valve assistance4. Ventricular relaxation


Varicose veins
Varicose Veins

  • Twisted, dilated superficial veins

    • caused by leaky venous valves

      • congenital or mechanically stressed from prolonged standing or pregnancy

    • allow backflow and pooling of blood

      • extra pressure forces fluids into surrounding tissues

      • nearby tissue is inflamed and tender

  • Deeper veins not susceptible because of support of surrounding muscles


Anastomoses
Anastomoses

  • Union of 2 or more arteries supplying the same body region

    • blockage of only one pathway has no effect

      • circle of willis underneath brain

      • coronary circulation of heart

  • Alternate route of blood flow through an anastomosis is known as collateral circulation

    • can occur in veins and venules as well

  • Alternate routes to a region can also be supplied by nonanastomosing vessels


Pulse pressure
Pulse Pressure

  • Pulse pressure = systole - diastole

  • MAP = diastolic pressure + pulse pressure/3

  • MAP = mean arterial pressure

  • MAPB = diastole + 1/3 (systole – diastole)

  • MAPB = mean arterial blood pressure


Blood pressure influenced by
Blood PressureInfluenced by:

  • Peripheral resistance

  • Heart efficiency

  • Blood viscosity

  • Total blood vessel length

  • Arteriole elasticity

  • Blood volume


Hormones that affect bp
Hormones that affect BP

  • Renin angiotensin

  • Epinephrine and norepinephrine

  • Antidiuretic hormone

  • Atrial natriuretic peptide


Autoregulation of bp
Autoregulation of BP

  • Physical changes

  • Vasodilating and constricting chemicals


Major branches of the aorta
Major Branches of the Aorta

  • Coronary arteries

  • Brachiocephalic

  • Left common carotid

  • Left subclavian

  • Celiac

  • Superior mesenteric artery

  • Renals

  • Ovarian / testicular

  • Inferior mesenteric


Minor branches of the aorta
Minor Branches of the Aorta

  • Pericardial Thoracic

  • Bronchial Lumbar

  • Esophageal Suprarenal

  • Mediastinal

  • Intercostal

  • Phrenic





Hypertension
Hypertension

  • Systole > 140

  • Diastole > 90

  • Causes: diet high in fat and sodium, obesity, older age, race, heredity, stress, and smoking.


Words to learn
Words to Learn

  • Aneurysm Shock

  • Angiogram Sphygmomanometer

  • Diuretic Korotkoff sounds

  • Phlebitis Angiogenesis

  • Phlebotomy Hypotension

  • Thrombophlebitis Occlusion

  • Syncope White Coat Hypertension

  • Tachycardia Edema


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