Aeromedical factors
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Aeromedical Factors. CW2 Steve Jones. Objective. To develop the student Instructor Pilot’s understanding of the Aeromedical Factors associated with Army Aviation. References. FM 1-301 AR 40-8 FM 1-240 AIM. Schedule. Self-Imposed Stresses Hypoxia Spatial Disorientation

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Aeromedical factors

Aeromedical Factors

CW2 Steve Jones


Objective

Objective

  • To develop the student Instructor Pilot’s understanding of the Aeromedical Factors associated with Army Aviation.


References

References

  • FM 1-301

  • AR 40-8

  • FM 1-240

  • AIM


Schedule

Schedule

  • Self-Imposed Stresses

  • Hypoxia

  • Spatial Disorientation

  • Visual Illusions

  • Vestibular Illusions


Self imposed stresses

Self-Imposed Stresses

RUGS

XHAUSTION

LCOHOL

OBACCO

YPOGLYCEMIA

D

E

A

T

H


Hypoxia

Hypoxia

Types of Hypoxia

  • Hypoxic

    • lack of oxygen in the air

  • Hypemic

    • oxygen carrying capacity of the blood

  • Stagnant

    • inadequate blood circulation

  • Histotoxic

    • interference with the use of oxygen


Hypoxia con t

Hypoxia (con’t)

Stages of Hypoxia

  • Indifferent

    • altitude 0 - 10,000 feet

  • Compensatory

    • altitude 10,000 - 15,000 feet

  • Disturbance

    • altitude 15,000 - 20,000 feet

  • Critical

    • altitude 20,000 - 25,000 feet


Spatial disorientation

Spatial Disorientation

  • An individual's inaccurate perception of position, attitude, and motion relative to the center of the earth.


The condition most susceptible to spatial disorientation is

THE CONDITION MOST SUSCEPTIBLE TO SPATIAL DISORIENTATION IS --

  • During a sudden and unexpected transition from VMC to IMC flight conditions


Senses of balance

SENSES OF BALANCE

  • Visual System

  • Vestibular System

  • Proprioceptive System


Visual illusions which lead to landing errors

VISUAL ILLUSIONSwhich lead to landing errors

  • Runway Width Illusions

  • Runway and Terrain Slope Illusions

  • Featureless Terrain Illusions

  • Atmospheric Illusions

  • Ground Lighting Illusions


Vestibular system

VESTIBULAR SYSTEM

Semicircular Canals

Otolith Organs


Semicircular canals

SEMICIRCULAR CANALS

  • Right angles to each other

  • Contains endolymph fluid


Vestibular illusions

Leans

Graveyard Spin

Coriolis Illusion

Vestibular Illusions

Somatogyral


Aeromedical factors

THE LEANS

Most common form of Spatial Disorientation


Aeromedical factors

Motion is usually undetected during a subthreshold

maneuver (less than 2o)


Aeromedical factors

Pilot corrects attitude and compensates for the false sensation of turning in the opposite direction


This illusion seldom affects both pilots at the same time

This illusion seldom affects both pilots at the same time


Coriolis illusion

CORIOLIS ILLUSION

  • Pilot enters a turn stimulating one semicircular canal

  • Pilot makes a head movement in a different geometrical plane

  • Stimulating a 2nd / 3rd semicircular canal

  • Results in overwhelming sensation of Yaw, Pitch, or Roll


Aeromedical factors

THECORIOLISILLUSION

The most deadly illusion


Somatogravic illusion

SOMATOGRAVIC ILLUSION

Illusions created by the Otolith organs as a result of linear acceleration


Aeromedical factors

UPRIGHTTILT FORWARDTILT BACKWARD

TRUE SENSATION TRUE SENSATION TRUE SENSATION

FUNCTION OF THE OTOLITH ORGANS

FORWARD ACCELERATION CENTRIFUGAL /CENTIPUAL

FALSE SENSATION OF BACKWARD FALSE SENSATION OF UPRIGHT


Elevator illusion

ELEVATOR ILLUSION

  • Occurs during sudden upward acceleration

  • Pilot perceives a nose up attitude

  • Tendency to “nose over” aircraft


Oculoagravic

OCULOAGRAVIC

  • Upward movement of the eyes during weightlessness, caused by rapid downward motion of the aircraft


Aeromedical factors

UPRIGHT

AFT TILT

UPRIGHT

EXTREME

AFT TILT

OCULOGRAVIC ILLUSION

NOSE HIGH SENSATION


Conclusion questions

ConclusionQuestions?


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