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Respiratory system. 广西医科大学人体解剖教研室. nose. upper respiratory tract. pharynx. larynx. lower respiratory tract. principal bronchi. branches of principal bronchi. The respiratory system. 1. respiratory tract. 2. lung/pulmo. trachea. Section 1 The Nose. Section 1 The Nose.

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Respiratory system

广西医科大学人体解剖教研室


nose

upper

respiratory

tract

pharynx

larynx

lower

respiratory

tract

principal bronchi

branches

of principal

bronchi

The respiratory system

1. respiratory tract

2. lung/pulmo

trachea


Section 1 The Nose

Section 1 The Nose

Section 1 The Nose

The external nose

Nasal root

Nasal back

Apex of nose

Alae nasi

Nares

Root of nose

Back of nose

Apex of nose

Alae nasi

Nares

Root of nose

Back of nose

Apex of nose

Alae nasi

Nares

Root of nose

Back of nose

Apex of nose

Alae nasi

Nares

External nose

External nose

External nose

Left nasal cavity

Left nasal cavity

Left nasal cavity

Nasal septum

Nasal septum

Nasal septum

Nasal cavity

Nasal cavity

Nasal cavity

Reft nasal cavity

Right nasal cavity

Reft nasal cavity

Frontal sinuses

Maxillary sinuses

Ethmoidal sinuses

Sphenoidal sinuses

Frontal sinuses

Maxillary sinuses

Ethmoidal sinuses

Sphenoidal sinuses

Frontal sinuses

Maxillary sinuses

Ethmoidal sinuses

Sphenoidal sinuses

Paranasal cavity

Paranasal cavity

Paranasal cavity

Cartilages


Nasal cavity

Olfactory region

Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone

Nasal bone

Septal cartilage

Vomer

nasal vestibule lined by skin

The part

proper nasal cavity lined by mucosa.

The mucosa has two region: olfectory region and respiratory region.

The medial wall: Nasal septum

Respiratory region

The lateral wall:

Superior, middle ,inferior nasal concha

Superior, middle ,inferior nasal meatus


Sphenoethmoidal recess

Frontal sinus

The paranasal sinuses are some air spaces lying in the bone

around the nasal cavity.

The paranasal sinuses are some air spaces lying in the bone

around the nasal cavity.

Frontal sinus

The place of the oppenings of paranasal sinuses.

The place of the openings of paranasal sinuses.

frontal sinus

frontal sinus

middle nasal meatus

middle nasal meatus

maxillary sinus

maxillary sinus

anterior group

anterior group

middle group

middle group

ethmoidal sinus

ethmoidal sinus

posterior group

posterior group

superior nasal meatus

superior nasal meatus

sphenoidal sinus

sphenoidal sinus

sphenoethmoidal recess

sphenoethmoidal recess


larynx

The sagittal section of the skull and neck

Section 2 The larynx

1. The position and relation

2. The composition

Laryngeal cartilages

Laryngeal joints

Laryngeal muscles

Laryngeal cavity


1. Laryngeal cartilages

thyroid cartilage 1

cricoid cartilage 1

epiglottic cartilage 1

arytenoid cartilage 2


Epiglottic cartilage

Hyoid bone

Thyrohyoid membrane

Thyroid cartilage

Arytenoid cartilage

Cricoarytenoid joint

Cricothyroid joint

Lamina of cricoid cartilage

Tracheal cartilage

Annular lig.

The laryngeal cavity and joint

2. The laryngeal joints

quadrangular membrane

vestibular ligament

Thyrohyoid membrane

Quadrangular membrane

Conus elasticus

Cricotracheal membrane

Cricothyroid joint

Conus elasticus

Cricoarytenoid joint

Conus elasticus

Vocal ligament

Conus elasticus extend upward from the cricoid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages and the posterior surface of the thyroid cartilage.

Vocal ligament is the superior of the conus elasticus.

Vocal fold is the mucosa covering the vocal ligament.

Vocal ligament


3. The muscle of larynx

Posterior cricoarytenoid

Crinothyroid

Thyroarytenoid

Transverse arytenoid

Transverse arytenoid

Oblique arytenoid

Lateral cricoarytenoid

Thyroarytenoid

Posterior cricoarytenoid

cricothyroid

Posterior cricoarytenoid can open the glottis.

Transverse arytenoid and oblique arytenoid close the glottis.

Posterior cricoarytenoid and crinothyroid can tense and lenghten the vocal fold.

Thyroarytenoid can relax and shorten the vocal fold.

Oblique arytenoid


4. The laryngeal cavity

Epiglottis

Aperture of larynx

Aryepiglottic fold

Interarytenoid notch

Oblique arytenoid

Transverse arytenoid

Thyroid cartilage

Posterior cricoarytenoid

Cricothyroid joint

Cricoid cartilage

Tracheal cartilage

Laryngeal vestibule

Rima vestibuli

Vestibular fold

Ventricle of larynx

Vocal fold

Fissure of glottis

Infraglottic cavity

Tracheal cavity

The inlet: aperture larynx

The vestibular folds

The mucous fold

The vocal fold

The laryngeal vestibule

The intermedial cavity of larynx

The parts

The infraglottic cavity

The fissure glottis

Conus elasticus

The fissure glottis


Section 3 The trachea and bronchi

Larynx

Trachea

1. The trachea

The composition: The tracheal cartilages, smooth muscle, connective tissue and epithelium.

R principal bronchus

The position of the bifurcation of trachea:

the sternal angle or the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra

L principal bronchus

The carina of trachea:

Bifurcation

2. The bronchi

Principal bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles.

The carina of trachea


Section 3 The trachea and bronchi

Larynx

Trachea

Right principal bronchus

Superior lobar bronchus

Middle lobar bronchus

Inferior lobar bronchus

1. The trachea

The composition:

The position of the bifurcation of trachea:

Bifurcation of tracea

Left principal bronchus

Sup. lobar bronchus

Inf. lobar bronchus

carina of trachea:

2. The bronchi

Principal bronchi lobar bronchi segmental bronchi

bronchioles terminal bronchioles.

The differences of right and left principal bronchus:

shorter, wider, more vertical


Section 4 lung/pulmo

Larynx

trachea

Apex

Superior lobe

cardiac notch

oblique fissure

inferior lobe

Apex of lung

Superior lobar bronchus

Right principal bronchus

Posterior border

Right inf. pulmonary v.

inferior lobe

Apex of lung

Oblique fissure

Pulmonary a.

left principal bronchus

Posterior border

Right inf. pulmonary v.

inferior lobe

Pulmonary a.

Hilum of lung

Superior pulmonary v.

Superior lobe

Horizontal fissure

Oblique fissure

Middle lobe

base of lung

Hilum of lung

Superior pulmonary v.

Superior lobe

Cardiac impression

Cardiac notch

Oblique fissure

base of lung

Apex

Superior lobe

Costal surface

Anterior border

Horizontal fissure

Oblique fissure

Middle lobe

Inferior lobe

1. The external features

Apex

Base or diaphragmatic suface

Two surface: costal and medial surface

Three border:

Hilum of lung

Root of lung:

The bronchi, pulmonary artery and veins, nerves, bronchial vessels, lymphatics and lyph nodes

medial surface

Inferior border

Medial surface of left lung

Medial surface of right lung


Larynx

trachea

Apex

Superior lobe

cardiac notch

oblique fissure

inferior lobe

2. The lobe

Apex

Superior lobe

Costal surface

Anterior border

Horizontal fissure

Oblique fissure

Middle lobe

Inferior lobe

oblique fissure

horizontal fissure

Superior lobe

Middle lobe

Inferior lobe

Right lung

oblique fissure

Superior lobe

Inferior lobe

Left lung

medial surface

Inferior border



4. The bronchopulmonary segments

4. The bronchopulmonary segments


Section 5 The pleura

Costal pleura

Diaphrgmatic pleura

Parietal pleura

Mediastinal pleura

1. The parts

Cupula of pleura

Visceral pleura

2. The pleural cavity and thoracic cavity

3. The pleural recess:costodiaphragmatic recess


4. The projection of inferior margins of lungs and pleura

The inferior margins of lungs and pleura :

midaxillary line

midclavicular line

scapular line

inferior margin of lungs

6th rib

8th rib

10th rib

inferior margin of pleura

8th rib

10th rib

11th rib


Section 6 The midiastinum

Superior mediatinum

The subsection:

Sernal angle

Anterior mediastinum

Middle mediastinum

Heart

Diaphragm

Superior mediastinum

Posterior mediatinum

anterior mediastinum

middle mediastinum

Inferior mediastinum

posterior mediastinum


Sum up the main point of respiratory system

1. The respiratory system includes respiratory tract and pulmo. The upper respiratory tract includes the nose, pharynx, larynx; and the trachea, principal bronchi with their branches belong to the lower tract. The primary function of this system is to supply the body with oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide.


2. The nose includes the external nose, nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.

Eachnasal cavity is divided into nasal vestibule and proper nasal cavity. The nasal vestibule is lined by skin, and the proper nasal cavity by mucous membrane. According to the function ,the mucous membrane is divided into two parts: olfectory and respiratory region.

The paranasal sinuses includes the frontal, maxillary, ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinus. They all communicate with nasal cavity. The frontal, maxillary, the anterior and middle ethmoidal sinuses open into the middle nasal meatuses; and the posterior ethmoidal sinus into the upper nasal meatus; and the sphenoidal sinus into the sphenoethmoidal recess. The positions of the opening the maxillary sinuses are higher than its floor.


3. The larynx consist of a framework of cartilages that connected together by ligament, membrane and joint. There are five cartilages: one thyroid, one cricoid, one epigrottic, and a pair arytenoid cartilage. The laryngeal cavity may be divided into three parts by the vestibular folds and the vocal folds: the laryngeal vestibule, the intermedial cavity of larynx and the infraglottic cavity.

Here, there are several names we must memorize:

The conus elasticus: the membrane between the upper of the cricoid cartilage, the posterior of the thyroid cartilage, and arytenoid cartilage.

The vocal ligament: the upper of the conus elasticus between the thyroid cartilage and the vocal projection of the arytenoid cartilage.

The vocal fold: the mucosa covering the surface of the vocal ligament and the arytenoid cartilage.

The fissure of glottis: the between the right and left vocal folds.

The glottis: consists of the vocal folds and the fissure of glottis.


4. Trachea and bronchi are all composed of C-shaped ring of cartilages, smooth muscle and connective tissue.

The lower end of the trachea is called the bifurcation.

There is a carina of trachea on the inner surface of the bifurcation.

The carina of trachea is the marker to guide the bronchoscope to the left or right bronchus.

The right principal bronchus is shorter, wider, and more vertical in position than the left.


5. The lung/ pulmo is respiratory organ. cartilages, smooth muscle and connective tissue.

The lung/ pulmo is conical and has an apex, a base, two surfaces and three borders.

The apex of the lung extends to about 2~3 cm above the level of the medial one-third of the clavicle.

The left pulmo is divided into superior and inferior lobes by oblique fissure; and the right pulmo is divided into superior, middle and inferior lobes by oblique and horizontal fissures

The branches of the bronchi in the lungs: the principal bronchus

lobar bronchi segmental bronchi bronchioles the terminal bronchioles.

A bronchopulmonary segment: a unit of lung tissue, where the branches / ramifications of a segmental bronchus distributes to. There are 10 segments on each side lung.


6. The pleura are serous membrane, divided into the parietal and visceral pleura.

The parietal pleura are divided into four parts: the costal pleura, the diaphragmatic pleura, the medial stinal pleura and the cupula of pleura.

The pleural cavity is the potential space between the parietal pleura and visceral pleura.

The right and left pleural cavity is separated from each other by mediastinum.

The costodiaphragmatic recess is in the place of the reflection of the diaphragmatic and costal pleura.

When the body is standing or sitting, the costodiaphragmatic recess is the lowest place of the pleural cavity. So if the pleural cavity has liquid, for example the blood or the pus, the liquid always fills in this recess first.

The projection of the inferior margins of the lungs and the pleura, (on the midclavicular line, midaxillary line, and scapular line) are respectively in: The lung: 6th, 8th, 10th rib; the pleura: 8th, 10th, 11th rib


7. and visceral pleura.The mediastinum is divided into 4 regions by the level of sternal angle and the pericardium: the superior mediastinum, the anterior mediastinum, the middle mediastinum, and the posterior mediastinum.


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