MSFD Descriptor 8 - Contaminants. Michael O. Angelidis, UNEP/MAP on behalf of the Task Group 8 on MSFD Descriptor 8 (Chair R. Law, CEFAS, UK and co-Chair G. Hanke, JRC) Marine Strategy 2012 Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-16 May 2012. Contaminants - levels.
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MSFD Descriptor 8 - Contaminants
Michael O. Angelidis, UNEP/MAP
on behalf of the Task Group 8 on MSFD Descriptor 8
(Chair R. Law, CEFAS, UK and co-Chair G. Hanke, JRC)
Marine Strategy 2012 Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-16 May 2012
“Concentrations of contaminants are at levels not giving rise to pollution effects”
Contaminants are defined as substances (i.e. chemical elements and compounds) or groups of substances that are toxic, persistent and liable to bioaccumulate, and other substances or groups of substances which give rise to an equivalent level of concern.
This definition is in line with the definition of hazardous substances used in the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD), and by OSPAR, HELCOM and the Barcelona Convention.
Pollution effects :
Direct and/or indirect adverse impacts of contaminants on the marine environment, such as:
The descriptor is concerned with the pressures exerted by chemical pollution onto marine ecosystems (including oil slicks). All contaminant types and pollution effects other than those covered by other descriptors will be considered
MSFD: “Relevant provisions of the WFD in territorial and/or coastal waters have to be taken into consideration to ensure proper coordination of the implementation of the two legal frameworks…”
MS have to consider substances that:
The assessment of achievement of GES should be based upon monitoring programmes covering:
To avoid occurrence of adverse effects at various levels of organisation (organism, population, community, and ecosystem), monitoring schemes should also indicate the approaching of critical values as an early warning of the potential for effects. Where possible, this should also include effects which may be caused by synergistic or cumulative interactions between different contaminants.
With regards to hazardous substances:
OSPAR and HELCOM aim to continuously reduce discharges, emissions and losses of hazardous substances, with complete cessation by 2020, the ultimate aim being the achievement of concentrations in the marine environment near background values for naturally occurring elements and substances and close to zero for man-made synthetic substances.
The Barcelona Convention (UNEP/MAP) aims to prevent, abate, combat and to fullest possible extent eliminate pollution of the Mediterranean Sea. Also (LBS Protocol) to phase out inputs of substances that are toxic, persistent and liable to bioaccumulation.
The Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution (Bucharest Convention) implements an integrated Monitoring and Assessment Programme.
BOTH attributes needed for GES
GES description on concentrations of contaminants (PRESURES):
GES description on biological effects of contaminants (IMPACTS):
but scope and scale varies
Causal relationships and mechanistic processes between contaminants and their effects on biota. Especially mixture effects and interactions between contaminants and other environmental stressors
Transfer of contaminants through thefod chain: Bioaccumulation, biomagnification, additive, synergistic and antagonistic effects
Fluxes and interfaces exchanges (sea/air, water/sediment)
Cost effective methods for greater amount of contaminants
Cost effective sampling; sensors on board of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles