FOOD POISONING. F ood poisoning is an acute gastro - enteritis caused by ingestion of food or drink contaminated with either living bacteria or their toxins or inorganic chemical substances and poisons derived from plants and animals. Clinical features: *Abdominal pain
Food poisoning is an acute gastro - enteritis caused by ingestion of food or drink contaminated with either living bacteria or their toxins or inorganic chemical substances and poisons derived from plants and animals.
* Vomitting & or diarrhoea
* With or without fever
Features of food poisoning outbreaks:
* Sudden occurrences of an illness in a group of people
* History of ingestion of common food
* Similar signs and symptoms
* Short incubation period
* Absence of secondary cases
Causes of food poisoning
Salmonella Food Poisoning:
Clostridium Food Poisoning:
Staphyllococcal Food Poisoning:
Bacillus cereus Food Poisoning:
Botulinum Food Poisoning:
Condition very fatal; death 4 – 8 days, due to resp / cardiac failure
Guanidine hydrochloride - to reverse neuromuscular blockade.
Vibrioparahemolyticus Food Poisoning:
Campylobacter food poisoning:
* They are known to cause epidemics of food poisoning in nurseries, paediatric wards, and communities in developing countries.
* Disease is usually self - limiting with complete recovery in 5 -
E coli O157 food poisoning:
* While most food poisoning events are short lived and resolve spontaneously, 2 - 7% of individuals develop Haemolytic uraemic syndrome about a week after onset of diarrhoea
Prevention and Control of Food Poisoning
* To Eat Freshly cooked and hot food
* Strict supervision on the whole cycle of meat processing
* Milk should be pasteurized or boiled
* Protection of Foods:
- In storage & processing
- Food items should not be left overnight in warm pantries
- Not eaten items should be kept immediately in cold storage to prevent bacterial multiplication and toxin production
* Food Handlers:
- Periodical examination
- Suffering from boils, ulcers throat or eye
infections – Not allowed
- Suffered from enteric fever or diarrhoea in recent
past – Not allowed
- Personal hygiene & clean habit.
* Environmental care:
- Clean & dry kitchen & dining hall
- Utensils & equipment: wash @ soap & hot water
- Rodent & insect control
- Periodic surveillance of food establishments
Investigation of food poisoning:
* Verification of diagnosis – clinical & laboratory
* Confirmation of existence of an epidemic
* Collection of data: location, place, no. of people affected
* Secure complete list: Nature of food eaten in last few days, time of onset, symptoms, personal data (age, occupation etc.), no. of deaths.
* Assessment of environmental factors: kitchen, dining hall & their sanitations, storage of food grains & cooked food, presence of rodents.
* Interrogation & examination of food handlers, hygiene, habits
* Lab report: Vomitus, stool of patients for culture, sample of suspected food, serological test of blood for antibody titre, urine & stool culture of food handlers & kitchen employees.
* Data analysis, * Formulation of etiolo…. Testing ……* Report writing.