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CHAPTER 6. Wild Species and Biodiversity. An introduction to wildlife and biodiversity. Puffins are seabirds that live in cold coastal waters In Maine, hunting and predatory gulls almost wiped them out, despite protective laws Project Puffin brought birds from Newfoundland in the 1970s

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Chapter 6

CHAPTER 6

Wild Species and Biodiversity


An introduction to wildlife and biodiversity

An introduction to wildlife and biodiversity

Puffins are seabirds that live in cold coastal waters

In Maine, hunting and predatory gulls almost wiped them out, despite protective laws

Project Puffin brought birds from Newfoundland in the 1970s

Chicks were installed on Eastern Egg Rock island

Gulls were removed

Painted decoys and tapes of puffin calls attracted birds

The island now has 101 pairs of puffins

Terns, petrels, and albatrosses have also been reintroduced


The value of wild species and biodiversity

The value of wild species and biodiversity

Ecosystem capital: all goods and services provided to humans by natural systems

In 2008, capital loss from the world’s financial crisis = $1–1.5 trillion

Capital loss from ecosystem degradation = $2–4.5 trillion

The basis of ecosystem capital = ecosystems

The basis of ecosystems = wild species

To maintain ecosystem sustainability, you must save ecosystem integrity, resilience, processes, biodiversity


The extinct passenger pigeon

The extinct passenger pigeon


The value of wildlife

The value of wildlife

Instrumental value: a species’ or organism’s existence or use benefits some other entity

Food, shelter, source of income

Usually anthropocentric: beneficiaries are humans

We preserve species to enjoy the benefits they provide

Intrinsic value: something has value for its own sake

It does not have to be useful to us

Do animals have rights? Or are they simply property?

Many people believe only humans have intrinsic value

There is no reason to preserve “insignificant” species


Species have value as sources for materials

Species have value as sources for materials

Most food comes from agriculture

Wild populations have traits for competitiveness, resistance to parasites, tolerance to adverse conditions

Agricultural populations have lost these traits

A cultivar (cultivated variety): a highly selected strain of the original species

Has minimal genetic variation

Produces outstanding yields in specific conditions

Can not adapt to other conditions


New food plants

New food plants

Potential for developing new cultivars is lost if wild populations are destroyed

Out of the hundreds of thousands of plants species

Humans use only 7,000 species

Three species (wheat, maize, rice) provide 50% of global food demands

Modern plants can not produce under many environmental conditions

30,000 plant species could be cultivated

For example, every part of the winged bean is edible


The winged bean

The winged bean


Wood and other raw materials

Wood and other raw materials

Animal husbandry, forestry, and aquaculture also select species from nature

Three billion people use wood for heating and cooking

Demand for wood is increasing

Scientists are predicting a “timber famine” or “fuelwood crisis”

Rubber, oils, nuts, fruits, spices, and gums also come from forests

All are valuable for humans


Banking genes

Banking genes

Genetic bank: living things are a bank of the gene pools of all living species

Wild relatives of cultivated crops are being preserved

England’s Millennium Seed Bank has 1 billion seeds

Norway’s Svalbard Global Seed Vault holds seeds as a backup for other seed banks

Zoos act as genetic banks for animals

The United Kingdom’s Frozen Ark Project collects cells and DNA from species likely to go extinct

Genetic diversity is preserved while we try to slow extinction


Species have value as sources for medicine

Species have value as sources for medicine

Madagascar’s rosy periwinkle has revolutionized treatment of childhood leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease

The Chinese star anise’s fruit is used in Tamiflu

Paclitaxel from the Pacific yew tree treats ovarian, breast, and small-cell cancers

Ethnobotany: studies relationships between plants and people

3,000 plants have anticancer properties

The search for beneficial drugs has helped create parks

Bioprospecting: studies indigenous people’s use of plants


The rosy periwinkle

The rosy periwinkle


Recreational aesthetic and scientific uses

Recreational, aesthetic, and scientific uses


Values support commercial interests

Values support commercial interests

Recreational and aesthetic values support commercial interests

In 2006, 87.5 million U.S. adults participated in wildlife-centered recreation (e.g., bird-watching, hunting)

Generated 2.6 million jobs and $108 million

Ecotourism: tourists visit a place to observe wild species or unique ecological sites

It is the largest foreign exchange-generating enterprise for many developing countries

Environmental degradation affects commercial interests


Scientific value

Scientific value

We learn basic laws of nature

The way ecosystems and the world work

Biota provides the nature we study

But most scientific work is done to gain medicines, agricultural benefits, and other outcomes


A cautionary note

A cautionary note

Using wild species and biodiversity causes problems

Little money from the rosy periwinkle’s success went back to Madagascar, a very poor country

Large companies have patented ancient herbal remedies

But indigenous people may not benefit

Ecotourism may bring money to poor countries

It increases pollution, harms wildlife, changes cultures

Whale-watching boats disrupt whale feeding

Tourist boats frighten flamingoes and reduce their feeding


The loss of instrumental value

The loss of instrumental value

Biodiversity loss has tremendous negative effect on the world

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity’s (TEEB) 2008 report detailed the economic and life-quality effects of biodiversity loss

Loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services = $78 billion/yr

Highest for the world’s poorest

Such an outcome is morally wrong


Species have value for their own sake

Species have value for their own sake

The usefulness (instrumental value) of species is obvious

But it’s not enough to protect many species

Some species have no obvious value

Another strategy: emphasize the intrinsic value of species

Extinction is an irretrievable loss of something valuable

The existence of a species means it has a right to exist

Living things have ends and interests of their own

“Destroying species is like tearing pages out of an unread book”

Humans have a responsibility to the natural world


Religious support for intrinsic value

Religious support for intrinsic value

Jewish and Christian traditions show God’s concern for wild species

God declared his creation was good and blessed it

All wild things have intrinsic value and deserve care

The Islamic Quran (Koran) says the environment is Allah’s creation and should be protected

Native American religions have a strong environmental ethic

Hindu philosophy has strong grassroots environmentalism

Religions represent a potentially powerful force for preserving biodiversity


Biodiversity and its decline

Biodiversity and its decline

Biodiversity includes genetic diversity in species as well as the diversity of species, communities, and ecosystems

Two measures calculate biodiversity

The number of species

How “even” the species are

A habitat has low biodiversity if it is dominated by one species with few members of other species

Diversity is higher if dominance of any one species is low


How many species

How many species?

Most people are unaware of the great diversity of species

Groups that are rich in species: flowering plants and insects

Conspicuous or commercially important groups are more explored and described

Birds, mammals, fish, trees

Fully exploring biodiversity would require a major effort

Estimates continue to rise as rain forests are explored


The state of u s species

The state of U.S. species


Species extinction rates

Species extinction rates


Most threatened species are in the tropics

Most threatened species are in the tropics

The tropics have almost unimaginable biodiversity

43 species of ants occur on one tree in Peru

Equal to all ant fauna of the British Isles

300 species of trees on a 1-ha (2.5-acre) plot

1,000 species of beetles on one tree species in Panama

Tropical forests are also experiencing the highest rate of deforestation

The species inventory is so incomplete it’s almost impossible to assess extinction rates


Reasons for the decline

Reasons for the decline

Past extinctions were caused by climate change, plate tectonics and asteroid impacts

Current threats to biodiversity are described by HIPPO

Habitat destruction

Invasive species

Pollution

Population

Overexploitation


Biodiversity loss in the developing world

Biodiversity loss in the developing world

Future losses in biodiversity will be greatest in the developing world

Biodiversity is greatest

So is human population growth

Asia and Africa have lost two-thirds of their original natural habitat

People’s desire for a better life

Desperate poverty

Global market for timber and other resources


Habitat change conversion

Habitat change: conversion

The greatest source of biodiversity loss (36%)

Conversion, fragmentation, simplification, intrusion

Species are adapted to specific habitats

When the habitat changes, the species goes with it

Conversion of natural areas to farms, housing, malls, marinas, industrial centers

Forest cover has been reduced by 40%

North American songbird declines are due to loss of winter habitat and fragmentation of summer habitat

Croplands that replace grasslands support few species


The border of haiti and the dominican republic

The border of Haiti and the Dominican Republic


Habitat change fragmentation

Habitat change: fragmentation

Natural landscapes have large patches of habitat connected to other similar patches

Human-dominated landscapes consist of a mosaic of different land uses

The patches contrast with neighboring patches

Fragments of habitat support small numbers and populations of species

Species become vulnerable to extinction

Species that require large areas, grow slowly, or have unstable populations are also vulnerable


Fragmentation

Fragmentation


Fragmentation edge

Fragmentation: edge

Reducing habitat size increases edge

Exposing species to predators and nest parasites

Edge is beneficial to some species but not to others

Kirtland’s warbler, an endangered species, depends on jack pines in Michigan

Forests have been fragmented, creating edge

Brown-headed cowbirds are nest parasites that lay their eggs in the warbler’s nest

Edge also favors nest predators (crows, magpies, jays)


Habitat change simplification and intrusion

Habitat change: simplification and intrusion

Simplification: humans simplify habitats

Removing logs and trees changes forest microhabitats

Streams are channelized (straightened), reducing fish and invertebrate species

Intrusion: human structures

Millions of migrating birds crash into telecommunication towers

Cell phone tower lights affect birds migrating at night

Up to a billion birds die each year by crashing into windows


Invasive species

Invasive species

An exotic (alien) species: one that is introduced into an area from somewhere else

Most don’t survive or don’t become pests

Invasive species: thrives, spreads, and can eliminate native species by predation or competition

Accidental introductions: the brown tree snake

Entered Guam on cargo ships

Within 50 years, it eliminated 9 of 12 bird species

It has no natural enemies

Wildlife officials are trying to prevent its spread


The brown tree snake

The brown tree snake


May i introduce

May I introduce…

Species have been deliberately introduced

Kudzu: to reclaim eroded or degraded lands

Saltcedar in the American southwest to control erosion

Horticultural desirables: the Brazilian pepper in Florida has fundamentally changed the Everglades

Aquaculture: the farming of shellfish, seaweed, and fish

Introducing parasites, seaweeds, invertebrates, pathogens

Species escape and enter nearby waterways


The brazilian pepper bush

The Brazilian pepper bush


Over time

Over time

Humans have transplanted species throughout history

European colonists brought weeds and plants to America

Field, lawn, and roadside plants are exotics

Animals have been introduced to North America

House mouse, Norway rat, wild boar, starling, horse

The house cat is one of the most destructive exotics

Kills 1 billion small mammals and hundreds of millions of birds

Species transplanted from North America cause problems

Gray squirrels outcompete red squirrels in Europe


The gray squirrel

The gray squirrel


Invasive species and trophic levels

Invasive species and trophic levels

Nonnative plants have different resistance mechanisms

Make it harder for herbivores to eat

Energy and materials may not pass up the food chain

Norway maples were introduced to North America in 1756

They provide less food up the food chain for herbivores (caterpillars) and their predators (song birds)


Pollution kills or reduces populations

Pollution kills or reduces populations

Agricultural nitrogen and phosphorus enter the Mississippi River, creating a 10,000 square mile “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico

It destroys or alters habitats

Oil spills kill seabirds and sea mammals

Pesticides (DDT) travel up the food chain and become more concentrated in higher consumers

Sediments kill species in lakes, rivers, and bays

Climate change is already impacting species


Pollution can spread disease

Pollution can spread disease

Pathogen pollution: human wastes can spread pathogenic microorganisms to wild species

Manatees have been killed by human papillomavirus, cryptosporidium, and microsporidium

Deformities in amphibians result from the larval stage of a flatworm invading tadpoles

High nutrient pollution led to large snail populations

Snails are intermediate hosts of the flatworm


Population

Population

Human populations put pressure on species

Direct use, habitat conversion, pollution

Large numbers of humans use resources wild species need

Even if each person uses small amounts of resources

A small group of people can overuse resources

People with highly consumptive resources have a disproportionate effect on the environment

Different levels of consumption and numbers of people drive tensions between countries


Overexploitation trade in exotics

Overexploitation: trade in exotics

Overexploitation: overharvest of a particular species

Removing individuals faster than they can reproduce

Overuse of species harms ecosystems

Driven by greed, ignorance, desperation, poor management

Overcutting forests, overgrazing, overhunting, etc.

Trade in exotics: much trade is illegal

Illegal trade generates $12 billion/yr, the third largest source after drugs and guns

Consumers pay huge prices for “luxuries” (e.g., polar bear rugs)


Illegal wildlife trade

Illegal wildlife trade

Some parrots sell for $10,000

A panda skin rug sells for $25,000

Shahtoosh shawls come from wool of the Tibetan antelope (chiru)

A “must-have” luxury item for the wealthy

It takes three dead antelopes to make one shawl

20,000 chiru were killed/year and their numbers plummeted

Retraining Kashmiri weavers and providing them with other wools and public court cases made them less popular


Overexploitation greed

Overexploitation: greed

The prospect of extinction does not stop exploiters

Huge profits drive poaching and the black market trade

Exotic pets (fish, reptiles, birds) are taken from the wild

Most do not survive the transition

Do not buy wild-caught species

The U.S. 1992 Wild Bird Conservation Act

Stops wild capture of declining birds, upholds treaties, and supports sustainable breeding programs

In 2007, the European Union (EU) prohibited importing wild birds


Consequences of losing biodiversity

Consequences of losing biodiversity

Biodiversity is essential for ecosystem goods and services

Mangroves and coral reefs buffer against storms

Ecotourism depends on biodiversity

Energy flow and nutrient cycling are driven by species

Keystone species: species whose role is vital to survival of other species

Predators control herbivores

Umbrella species: larger animals that need unspoiled habitat (wolves, elephants, tigers, moose, etc.)


K strategists are at most risk

K-strategists are at most risk

Many declining species are K-strategists

Long-living, large, older at first reproduction, high parental care

Vulnerable to rapid environmental change

Can decline even if they are common

R-strategists are less likely to be harmed by humans

Widely distributed, small, rapid reproduction, low parental care, ability to migrate

Likely to become pest species


Moving forward

Moving forward

What if humans cause a species to go extinct?

The natural world is less beautiful or interesting

There are glimmers of hope

Species thought to be extinct aren’t

New populations of rare species are discovered

New protections emerge from a change in policy

The EU’s concern over avian flu limits bird imports

Scientific accomplishments and captive breeding

Led to the first live rhinoceros birth from frozen semen


Saving wild species conservation biology

Saving wild species: conservation biology

Scientists are at the front lines of protecting biodiversity

They know what is out there and what is declining

Stopping biodiversity losses requires laws and enforcement

People need to look at the big picture

Conservation biology: focuses on protection of populations and species

Uses captive breeding, telemetry, and tracking devices

Taxonomy: the cataloging and naming of species

Understanding species and identifying those in trouble

A lack of experts makes it hard to find solutions


Policy and political structure

Policy and political structure

Species protection requires public policies and agencies to make and support them

In the U.S., wildlife resources are public resources

The government holds these resources under the Public Trust Doctrine and is obliged to protect them

The protective role is exercised by state fisheries and wildlife agencies

The law may mandate federal jurisdiction

Endangered species and game animals


Game animals in the united states

Game animals in the United States

Game animals are hunted for sport, meat, pelts

Species were hunted to extinction (great auk, heath hen, passenger pigeon) or near extinction (bison, turkey)

Regulations established hunting seasons and limits

Some species were given complete protection

Turkey boom: turkeys have recovered

After World War II, habitats were protected

Birds were reintroduced to historic habitats

Hunting quotas were strictly limited

They have become an introduced pest in the western U.S.


The wild turkey

The wild turkey


Hunting and conservation

Hunting and conservation

Managers use hunting and trapping fees to enhance habitats

Organizations raise funds to help species they want to hunt

Defenders of hunting argue that their prey lack predators

Increased prey eat crops, collide with cars, etc.

Hunters may think species are declining but others think numbers are too high

Others want to end hunting and trapping

Some practices (leghold steel traps) are cruel

Predators would restore natural checks and balances


Backyard menagerie

Backyard menagerie

Many animal species are found in urban and suburban areas

Rabbits, doves, squirrels are well-adapted

They are protected from hunting

Problems have emerged

Roadways kill a million animals each day

This presents a hazard to drivers, too

Overpasses and tunnels provide safe corridors

Amphibians are at most danger


Highway overpasses

Highway overpasses


Nuisance animals thrive in urban areas

Nuisance animals thrive in urban areas

Opossums, skunks, and deer are attracted by food

Creating health hazards (e.g., rabies)

Humans may be attacked by cougars, bears, alligators

Urbanization is encroaching on wildlife habitat

Coyotes eat pets and garbage

Protecting predators and humans is part of our stewardship task

Wildlife Services (formerly Animal Damage Control) removes (kills) 2.5 million animals/yr


Cougar on the roof

Cougar on the roof


Protecting endangered species

Protecting endangered species

Government policies protecting animals are essential to prevent extinction

Even when cultural standards change

Laws and policies ensure protection

Lacey Act (1900): forbids interstate commerce in illegally killed wildlife

Protects wildlife from illegal killing or smuggling

Violations result in fines and prison

In 2007, violators were caught with illegal bear gall bladders, bobcat skins, and undersized leopard sharks


Endangered species act 1973

Endangered Species Act (1973)

Endangered species: in imminent danger of becoming extinct if it is not protected

Includes genetically distinct subpopulations (subspecies)

Threatened species: in jeopardy but not yet endangered

An officially recognized endangered or threatened species

Fines are levied for killing, trapping, uprooting (plants), or engaging in commerce

Administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service


Endangered species

Endangered species


Elements of the endangered species act

Elements of the Endangered Species Act

Listing: by the appropriate agency, individuals, groups, state agencies

Based on the best available information

Does not include any economic impact of listing

Critical habitat: areas where a species is or could spread as it recovers

Includes privately held lands

Recovery plans: designed to allow listed species to survive and thrive

Developed by the appropriate agency


Alternatives and roadblocks

Alternatives and roadblocks

By August, 2008, 1,327 species were listed for protection

1,170 have recovery plans

526 species have designated critical habitat

253 other candidate species are waiting to be listed

Political battles have prevented reauthorization of the act

Timber, recreational, mining, and other groups oppose it

They believe it limits their property rights

Congressional allies sponsor legislation to weaken or abolish the Endangered Species Act


Tesra 2005

TESRA (2005)

Threatened and Endangered Species Recovery Act

Lowered the likelihood of species recovery

Eliminated protection of critical habitats

Decreased consultation between U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the EPA on pesticide impacts on wildlife

Bypassed review of federal actions by wildlife agencies

Hampered use of modeling and reports on assessment of extinction risk

Scientists strongly objected to TESRA

TESRA passed the House but not the Senate


Conflicting values

Conflicting values

Critics say the Endangered Species Act is a failure

Only 10 species have recovered and been delisted

But this is not a true measure of success

The two major causes of extinction (habitat loss and invasive species) are increasing

Only critically low species are listed

41% of species have stabilized or increased—a success

Some critics say the act does not go far enough

Protection only occurs with listing and a recovery plan

Candidate species go extinct before being listed


Establishment of critical habitat

Establishment of critical habitat

Opponents feel it places unwanted burdens on property owners

They feel it does not help conserve species

TESRA would have identified, but not required, areas of “special value” for species

Critics of TESRA say critical habitat works

Species with critical habitat have been twice as likely to recover


Future legislation

Future legislation

Many political and commercial groups want to weaken the Endangered Species Act

In 2006, 6,000 scientists signed a letter to the Senate urging them to maintain and strengthen the act

The Endangered Species Act formally recognizes the importance of preserving species

Regardless of their economic importance

Species have legal rights to protection

Tax breaks and incentives to landowners may help

The Endangered Species Recovery Act (ESRA) (2007)


Seeing success

Seeing success

Some species have successfully recovered

The gray wolf

Birds of prey have recovered

Both the bald eagle and peregrine falcon had thinner eggs due to the pesticide DDT

Once DDT was banned in the U.S. and Canada, numbers increased

They are still protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act


The american bald eagle

The American bald eagle


Fly away home

Fly away home

The whooping crane has had full-time monitoring and protection

From 14 cranes in 1939, 266 cranes now exist

The migratory flock flies between Texas and Canada

A nonmigratory flock has been established in Florida

72 birds make up a new Florida-Wisconsin migratory flock

They were “taught” their migratory path by following an ultralight aircraft

This flock is still extremely vulnerable


Whooping cranes and pilot

Whooping cranes and pilot


The spotted owl

The spotted owl

Critics of the Endangered Species Act say it goes too far to protect a species

The northern spotted owl was used to save some remaining old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest

The remaining 2,400 pairs are found only in these forests

The Northwest Forest Plan (1994) uses ecosystem management to set aside federal land

Prohibits logging trees older than 80 years

Because of threatened lawsuits, the Fish and Wildlife Service finally released a recovery plan in 2008


Protecting biodiversity internationally

Protecting biodiversity internationally

Efforts are being made worldwide to protect species

Especially in the tropics

Requires immense cooperation among local, state, and federal authorities

The National Biological Information Infrastructure helps the U.S. coordinate with the rest of the world

Partnerships create treaties

Monitor species, share information, and find solutions to the needs of people when they clash with species


International developments

International developments

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Monitors successes and failures of conservation efforts

Other groups coordinate scientists or policy makers

The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Is part of the IUCN’s Species Survival Commission

Advises on and maintains a global database

Policy and treaty makers formulate documents

Convention on Biological Diversity

Funding must be available

The Critical Ecosystems Partnership fund, etc.


The red list

The Red List

Maintained by the IUCN for threatened species

Evaluates the risk of extinction for thousands of species

Frequently updated and available on the Internet

In 2008, it had 16,928 species

Each species is classified

Given its distribution, documentation, habitat, ecology, conservation measures, and data sources

Not actively engaged in preserving species

It is the basis of conservation activities

Provides crucial leadership


Cites

CITES

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

Established in the early 1970s

An international agreement focusing on trade and wildlife

The highest level of vulnerability: species threatened with extinction

Uses restrictive trade permits

If the nations agree, there is a ban on trade

The signatory countries meet every 2–3 years


The ban on the trade in ivory

The ban on the trade in ivory

Implemented in 1989 to stop the rapid decline of the African elephant

Fell from 2.5 million in 1950 to 470,000 in 2008

Some countries have applied to CITES to resume ivory sales

Each time a trade is permitted, poaching resumes

Any plan to protect elephants must enable people to manage wildlife without overexploitation

Requires a world outcry against ivory collection


Convention on biological diversity

Convention on Biological Diversity

CITES cannot address biodiversity loss

An international treaty to conserve global biodiversity

Drafted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro

Its three objectives are:

Conservation of biodiversity

Sustainable use of biodiversity services

The equitable sharing of the use of genetic resources found in a country

Governed by the Conference of the Parties (CITES members)


2010 the international year of biodiversity

2010: The international year of biodiversity

The Biodiversity Treaty’s delegates adopted a Strategic Plan to achieve, by 2010, a significant reduction in biodiversity loss

The targets are achievable, but it will take an unprecedented and costly effort

Loss of biodiversity continues at all levels

But protected areas are increasing

Lobbying by organizations prevented ratification by the Senate

But the U.S. still sends delegations to meetings


Critical ecosystem partnership fund

Critical ecosystem partnership fund

Sponsored by multiple entities and foundations

Provides grants to NGOs and community-based groups for conservation activities in biodiversity “hot spots”

Hot spots are 34 regions making up 2.3% of Earth’s land surface

Contain 75% of the most threatened species

By 2008, the fund had provided $102 million

1,300 partners to work on preserving biodiversity in these hot spots


Biodiversity hot spots

Biodiversity hot spots


Stewardship concerns

Stewardship concerns

We must take steps to protect biological wealth

Our values come from our view of species

Wisdom: has four themes

Reform policies that lead to biodiversity declines

Address the needs of people living next to high-biodiversity areas

Practice conservation at the landscape level

Promote more research on biodiversity, particularly through the Internet


Values

Values

Is the natural world simply for humans to use?

Or should it be managed sustainably?

We all derive benefits from biodiversity

We will all suffer from its loss, particularly the poor

Stemming the loss of species requires hard work

Focusing on preserving ecosystems

Thomas Jefferson said that if one link in nature’s chain is lost, another might be lost

Until the whole of things vanishes


Chapter 61

CHAPTER 6

Wild Species and Biodiversity

Active Lecture Questions


Chapter 6

The natural species of living things are collectively referred to as

a.biota.

b.abiota.

c.symbiota.

d.bopota.

Review Question-1


Chapter 6

The natural species of living things are collectively referred to as

a.biota.

b.abiota.

c.symbiota.

d.bopota.

Review Question-1 Answer


Chapter 6

When a species or organism provides some benefit to another, it is considered to have ______; when the species or organism has value for its own sake, it is considered to have ______.

a.intrinsic value; instrumental value

b.instrumental value; intrinsic value

c.intrinsic value; economic value

d.economic value; instrumental value

Review Question-2


Chapter 6

When a species or organism provides some benefit to another, it is considered to have ______; when the species or organism has value for its own sake, it is considered to have ______.

a.intrinsic value; instrumental value

b.instrumental value; intrinsic value

c.intrinsic value; economic value

d.economic value; instrumental value

Review Question-2 Answer


Chapter 6

Habitat destruction that leaves only small patches of natural habitat is considered

a.invasion.

b.conversion.

c.intrusion.

d.fragmentation.

Review Question-3


Chapter 6

Habitat destruction that leaves only small patches of natural habitat is considered

a.invasion.

b.conversion.

c.intrusion.

d.fragmentation.

Review Question-3 Answer


Chapter 6

A critical element in the protecting of species is ______, which is the cataloging of species and the naming of new ones.

a.ethnobotany

b.taxonomy

c.aquaculture

d.biodiversity

Review Question-4


Chapter 6

A critical element in the protecting of species is ______, which is the cataloging of species and the naming of new ones.

a.ethnobotany

b.taxonomy

c.aquaculture

d.biodiversity

Review Question-4 Answer


Chapter 6

The ______ List uses a set of criteria to evaluate the risk of extinction for thousands of species throughout the world.

a.Red

b.Yellow

c.Green

d.Rainbow

Review Question-5


Chapter 6

The ______ List uses a set of criteria to evaluate the risk of extinction for thousands of species throughout the world.

a.Red

b.Yellow

c.Green

d.Rainbow

Review Question-5 Answer


Chapter 6

According to Fig. 6-5, what percentage of U.S. species of plants and animals are considered to be at risk of extinction?

a.approximately 33%

b.approximately 55%

c.approximately 67%

d.approximately 92%

Interpreting Graphs and Data-1


Chapter 6

According to Fig. 6-5, what percentage of U.S. species of plants and animals are considered to be at risk of extinction?

a.approximately 33%

b.approximately 55%

c.approximately 67%

d.approximately 92%

Interpreting Graphs and Data-1 Answer


Chapter 6

According to Fig. 6-20, the United States has one biodiversity hot spot; it is called

a.Caucasus.

b.Micronesia.

c.California Floristic Province.

d.Cape Floristic Region.

Interpreting Graphs and Data-2


Chapter 6

According to Fig. 6-20, the United States has one biodiversity hot spot; it is called

a.Caucasus.

b.Micronesia.

c.California Floristic Province.

d.Cape Floristic Region.

Interpreting Graphs and Data-2 Answer


Chapter 6

In 1900, U.S. Congress passed the ______ Act to prevent interstate commerce in illegally traded wildlife.

a.Endangered Species

b.Magnuson

c.Lacey

d.Threatened and Endangered Species Recovery

Thinking Environmentally-1


Chapter 6

In 1900, U.S. Congress passed the ______ Act to prevent interstate commerce in illegally traded wildlife.

a.Endangered Species

b.Magnuson

c.Lacey

d.Threatened and Endangered Species Recovery

Thinking Environmentally-1 Answer


Chapter 6

Which of the following was not a major recommendation of the UN Global Biodiversity Assessment for the protection of biodiversity?

a.reform policies that lead to declines in biodiversity

b.address the needs of people who live near biodiversity hot spots

c.reduce conservation at the landscape level

d.promote more research on biodiversity

Thinking Environmentally-2


Chapter 6

Which of the following was not a major recommendation of the UN Global Biodiversity Assessment for the protection of biodiversity?

a.reform policies that lead to declines in biodiversity

b.address the needs of people who live near biodiversity hotspots

c.reduce conservation at the landscape level

d.promote more research on biodiversity

Thinking Environmentally-2 Answer


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