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Antigen capture. B cell expansion. Immature DC. T cell expansion. PAMP recognition and activation. Mature DC. Figure 1. DC activation and maturation. Adapted from Wack, A. and Rappuoli, R. Current Opinions in Immunology 2005. Figure 2. Human DC subsets and lineage origins.

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Antigen capture

B cell expansion

Immature DC

T cell expansion

PAMP recognition

and activation

Mature DC

Figure 1. DC activation and maturation.

Adapted from Wack, A. and Rappuoli, R. Current Opinions in Immunology 2005


Figure 2. Human DC subsets and lineage origins.

Shortman, K and Y. J. Liu Nature Reviews Immunology 2002


Figure 3. Within the immune synapse formed between APCs and T cells, three signals are required for antigen-specific T cell activation.

Gutcher, I. and Becher, B. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2007


Figure 4. APC-derived cytokines guide the differentiation of naive T cells into an effector T cell subtypes in mouse.

Gutcher, I. and Becher, B. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2007


Figure 5. Structures of the IL-1R family. naive T cells into an effector T cell subtypes in mouse.

Sims, J. et al Current Opinions in Immunology 2007


Figure 6. TLRs localization and their ligands. naive T cells into an effector T cell subtypes in mouse.

Verstak, B. et al Inflammation Research 2007

Table 1. Synthetic and endogenous TLR ligands.

Kanzler, H. et al Nature Medicine 2007


Figure 7. IRF Activation by Cytosolic Pattern-Recognition Systems; Operation of a Positive-Feedback Mechanism.

Honda, K. et al Immunity 2006


Figure 8. Summary of TLR signaling pathways. Systems; Operation of a Positive-Feedback Mechanism.

Dunne, A. and O’Neill, L. FEBS Letters 2005


TRIF Systems; Operation of a Positive-Feedback Mechanism.

TRIF

TBK1

IKKe

Figure 9. Type I IFN positive feedback loop.

Adapted from Doyle, S. et al, Immunity 2002


Figure 10. Schematic representation of IRF-3 and IRF-7 activation and dimerization by virus-induced phosphorylation. Lin, R. et al. Cellular and Molecular Biology 1999


Figure 11. Enhanceosome formation and IFN-β gene transcription.

Kenya, H. et al Immunity 2006


Figure 12. IL-12 family members: composition, receptors and regulatory functions.

Adapted fromGoriely, S. and Goldman, M. Transplantation 2007


IL-23 regulatory functions.

IL-27

Figure 13. Regulatory functions of IL-27.

Adapted from Colgan, J. and Rothman, P. Nature Immunology 2006


Figure 14. The classification and structure of the PKC family of isozymes.

Kheifets, V. and Mochly-Rosen, D. Pharmacological Research 2007


Figure 15. Model of PKCα phosphorylation. family of isozymes.

Bornancin, F. and Parker, P.J. Journal of Current Biology 1996


Adapted from family of isozymes.

TLR3

PKCa

IL-12/23p40

IL-23p19

IL-12p35

IL-27p28

Figure 16. Schematic of PKCa activity in TLR3 and TLR4 signaling pathways.

Adapted from Akira, S. and Takeda, K. Nature Reviews Immunology 2004


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