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生態的文化人類學分析 — 蘭嶼人的 南島地景知識 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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生態的文化人類學分析 — 蘭嶼人的 南島地景知識. 胡正恆. 中華民國 101 年 5 月. 生態處遇生產地景現象. 從蘭嶼研究獲得啟示 區域文化研究 生態人類學 STS 科技社會研究. 生態處遇生產地景現象. 從蘭嶼研究獲得啟示 區域文化研究 生態人類學 STS 科技社會研究 喜愛田野 ( 質性 ) 研究 的社群蹲點方法. 生態處遇生產地景現象. 從蘭嶼研究獲得啟示 區域文化研究 生態人類學 STS 科技社會研究 喜愛田野 ( 質性 ) 研究 的社群蹲點方法 Hybrid :跨學科間的接枝激盪. 無盡的寶藏在田野.

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生態的文化人類學分析 — 蘭嶼人的 南島地景知識

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1015


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  • STS


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  • STS

    ()


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  • STS

    ()

  • Hybrid


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  • STS

    ()

  • Hybrid

  • Trace people, things, metaphor


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  • STS

    ()

  • Hybrid

  • Trace people, things, metaphor

  • Coop

    • (TEK)


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Orchid Island


Orchid island

Orchid Island

  • Geography

    • 75 km from Taiwan

    • 64 km from the Philippines

  • Geology

    • formed in Pliocene (3.4 Myr)

    • disconnected to the South (0.38 Myr)

  • Area Size: 46 km2 / 18 mile2

  • Climate: tropical rain forest

    • Summer: Apr Nov, 30C / 85F

    • Winter: Dec March, 19C / 67F

    • 4000 mm annual rainfall

  • Ethnicity

    • Malayo-Polynesian speaking Yami-Tao

    • Archaeological record (4000 yr BP)

Taiwan Weather Service, 1975-2002


Environmental anthropology

Environmental Anthropology

  • Human Adaptive Strategies

  • Sustainable Development Ecotourism

  • Ecological Economics

  • Historical Ecology

  • Cultural Models of Human-Ecosystems


  • Ecological anthropology

    Ecological Anthropology

    vs

    tao


    Tao rayun panenep dedeka amyan

    taorayun panenep, dedekaamyan

    photo courtesy: HW Zheng)


    Mipiyapiya veang

    Mipiyapiya veang


    Mi ngana ngana

    Mi ngana ngana


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    Tao


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    photo courtesy: Aaron Kao)


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      • Do-Peptawan, Vanwa no mavakes

    photo courtesy: Aaron Kao)


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    Siapen manaik

    Siapen Manaik


    Siapen manga nanao

    Siapen Manga Nanao


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    tao


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    Ji-Mina Ovok(480m)

    Ji-Katedmana(552m)

    Do-Jirila(465m)

    Ji-Rako a Tokon(507m)

    Ji-Catelman(498m)

    Ji-Ahahod

    Ecological and Topogenic Survey


    Ecological anthropology1

    Ecological Anthropology

    • Landscape Anthropology

      • (emic)


    Ecological anthropology2

    Ecological Anthropology

    • Landscape Anthropology

      • (emic)

    • (Traditional Ecological Knowledge, TEK)

      • (ethno-science)

      • Cilagasan


    Unpack traditional ecological knowledge tek

    Unpack Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK)

    TEK

    • TEK

      • Levi-Strauss

      • (Barrows 1900, Levy-Bruhl 1935, Leenhardt 1947, Conklin 1955)

      • vs.raet

    Lvi-Strauss

    Ixchel, The Mayan earth and moon goddess and patroness of pregnant women


    Unpack traditional ecological knowledge tek1

    Unpack Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK)

    TEK

    • Julian Steward TEK

    • Fikret Berkes (resilience) (Berkes et al. 1995, 2001)

    • TEK

      • (indigenous knowledge)

      • indigenous technical knowledge

      • ethno ecology

      • local knowledge

      • folk knowledge

      • traditional knowledge

      • (traditional environmental knowledge)

      • (peoples science)

      • rural knowledge


    Argument problematizing

    argumentproblematizing

    • (emic)

    • Genealogical institutional regimeTEK

      • Indigenous Rights, Trust, Common Property, Co-management, Memory, Privilege

    • Relational discursive regimeTEK

      • Moral, Ethic, Visions, Aesthetic, Chapter Myth, Emotion, Practice, Movement, Embodiment, Emplacement, Enactment


    Institutional regime

    Institutional Regime :

    • TEK

    • (norm)(2007)Chief Seattlization of Nature Conservation

      2007/2/11


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    • teknonymySyapenSyamanSyananSi()Syaman JagalitSi JagalitSyapen ManeywanSi Maneywan.

    photo courtesy: HW Zheng)


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    • relational discursive regimeTEK

      • Moral, Ethic, Visions, Aesthetic, Chapter Myth, Emotion, Practice, Movement, Embodiment, Emplacement, Enactment

    photo courtesy: HW Zheng)


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    • Moral, Ethic, Visions, Aesthetic, Chapter Myth, Emotion, Practice, Movement, Embodiment, Emplacement, Enactment


    The austronesian way

    (the Austronesian way)

    Discursive Regime

    • TEK

    • (chronicle)

    13-20

    13. Ji-Pratayan

    14. Ji-Zagpitan

    15. Ji-Makalilinan

    16. Ji-Isu

    17. Ji-Maliodod

    18. Jimina-Sasadangan

    19. Ji-Minili do Tazak

    20. Ji-Masik

    21. Imorod

    7-12

    7. Ji-Takeynivan

    8. Ji-Tonga

    9. Ji-Makan Avak Ayo

    10. Ji-Sinapat no Karab

    11. Ji-Mavak

    12. Ji-Vaokonong

    1-6

    1. Ji-Paptok

    2. Do-Tozak no Inapo

    3. Ji-Voit

    4. Ji-Cakaoyan

    5. Ji-Kacingehan

    6. Ji-Langoy


    Ancestry

    Ancestry

    • Ancestry I:

      • Ancestral Movement

      • its Associated Species :

    Jinangis

    Ralain no misanga sozong

    6112


    Ancestry ancestral embodiment

    Ancestry Ancestral Embodiment

    • Ancestry II

      • Anito Spirits upon Landscape: anito

    • Ancestral embodiments

    • Ancestral Embodiment

      • (Upper Grandfather, akay-do-to)

      • (anito)

    • Tim Ingold (2000:132-151) The perception of the environment: essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill.

      • ancestral ongoing engagement with the land and with the beings (human and nonhuman) that dwell therein. Ancestry is embedded in life-historical narratives of predecessors, of their movements and emplacement.

    • (manifestation)anito

      • (spirit)

    TEKspiritual rock (14 sites, red),subsistence plants (116 sites, yellow),magic animals (boars, goats, birds and wildlife; 34 sites, orange),subsistent sea life (shellfish and crabs; 12 sites, blue), particular fishing activities (27 sites, gray) 208 / 1000+


    The austronesian way1

    (the Austronesian way)

    TEKspiritual rock (14 sites, red),subsistence plants (116 sites, yellow),magic animals (boars, goats, birds and wildlife; 34 sites, orange),subsistent sea life (shellfish and crabs; 12 sites, blue), particular fishing activities (27 sites, gray )208 / 1000+

    6112


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    Ji-Mina Ovok(480m)

    Ji-Katedmana(552m)

    Do-Jirila(465m)

    Ji-Rako a Tokon(507m)

    Ji-Catelman(498m)

    Ji-Ahahod

    Ji-Wawanito

    Do-Asin

    James J. Fox (topographic vista)


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    E

    W

    N

    A Modern Landscape


    Modern disoriented landscape

    Modern Disoriented Landscape

    5 tourism, conservation

    1

    2

    3 1966 1979rehousing

    4


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    Ji zakazang

    Ji-zakazang


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    Ji kanyoyan

    Ji-Kanyoyan ()


    Ji ranweina

    Ji-Ranweina


    Cultural frustration

    (cultural frustration)

    • TEK

      inawi karana tokonakuan

    • wish you I said (I try to remember.)

      vaci namen na makaikailien

    • ground millet our village

    • (During harvests when we ground millet.)

      oya rana mina vonas jiyamen

    • already lost we

    • (However, the millets are already gone.)

      ya namen rana rarakeapuan

    • we already become old

    • (We are already too old to see.)


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    • ()

    photo courtesy: Guang, XJ)


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    birdwing butterfly (Pahanito)

    • ()

    green sea turtle (Irang) scops owl (Tutuwu)

    photo courtesy: Guang, XJ)


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    • 10


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    • (2007/02/03)

    • Tim Ingold expands Ancestry (2000)

      • ordinary humans who lived in the past

      • spirit inhabitants of the landscape

      • mythic other-than-human characters

      • original creator beings


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    Ji-Mina Ovok(480m)

    Ji-Katedmana(552m)

    Do-Jirila(465m)

    Ji-Rako a Tokon(507m)

    Ji-Catelman(498m)

    Ji-Wawanito

    Do-Asin

    (Cultural Revitalization)

    20-50

    GIS


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    • GIS

    • GIS

      • GIS

      • 2007GIS


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    Ji-Mina Ovok(480m)

    Ji-Katedmana(552m)

    Do-Jirila(465m)

    Ji-Rako a Tokon(507m)

    Ji-Catelman(498m)

    Ji-Ahahod

    Ji-Wawanito

    Do-Asin


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    GIS


    Place names as tek

    Place Names as TEK

    STS


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    Ji-Mina Ovok(480m)

    Ji-Katedmana(552m)

    Do-Jirila(465m)

    Ji-Rako a Tokon(507m)

    Ji-Catelman(498m)

    Ji-Ahahod

    GIS


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    pahapahad no anito : kazen kazen cin ()


    Acknowledgements

    Acknowledgements

    • Thanks collectively for

      • All Yami informants and friends

    • Other thanks to institutions

      • Ecological and Cultural Conservation Association (ECCA)

      • Tzu Chi University


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