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Gas Exchange. I. Introduction. A. Why ?. B. Forces & Factors. Forces to drive gas exchange?. Surface area. Moisture. Figure 42.23. Factors help to maximize exchange?. C. Transport. II. Strategies. A. Direct. Direct method = Poriferans , Cnidarians , and Platyhelminthes.

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Gas Exchange

I. Introduction

A. Why?


B. Forces & Factors


Forces to drive gas exchange?

Surface area

Moisture

Figure 42.23

Factors help to maximize exchange?


C. Transport


II. Strategies

A. Direct


Direct method = Poriferans, Cnidarians, and Platyhelminthes

Constant water movement

Simple thin structure

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.4

What would be required to lead this life style?


B. Gills

1. Structure


Gills == Mollusca to Vertebrata

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.22


Fish Gills

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3


2. Forces


Figure 42.21

Ram ventilation vs.

Gulping

Advantagesvs. Disadvantages

Figure 33.3


Circulation of water coupled with perfusion of blood

Figure 42.21

Figure 42.23

Figure 33.3


swim bladder in bony fishes via the gas gland

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 34.16


C. Tracheal Systems

1. Insecta


direct oxygen delivery system to the muscle fibers

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.24


2. Chordata

a. Amphibians


Circulate air to lungs from mouth and skin ==PP breathers

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3


b. Reptilians


PP breathers

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3


c. Avians


Negative pressure breathers move air into their lungs and air sacs

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3


Negative pressure breathers move air into their lungs and air sacs

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.27


d. Mammalians

i. Air tubes


Negative breathers use muscle contractions to moveair

Figure 42.21

Figure 42.25

Figure 33.3

pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells


ii. Lungs


alveoli for gas exchange

Type I and Type II cells

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.25


alveoli for gas exchange

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3


Lung expansion == muscle contraction

Figure 42.21

Figure 42.28

Quiet versus ForcedInhalation vs. Exhalation

Figure 33.3


iii. Control


Pons, Medulla Oblongata, and the Hypothalamus

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.29


iv. Transport


partial gas pressures

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.30

Figure 42.31a & b


Respiratory pigments transport oxygen and also buffer

CO2is transported via other mechanisms

Dissolved in plasma about 7%

Bound to globin about 23%

Travels bicarbonate shuttle about 70%

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.28


Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.32

Figure 42.28


Quantity doesn’t mean Quality.


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