Gas Exchange
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Gas Exchange. I. Introduction. A. Why ?. B. Forces & Factors. Forces to drive gas exchange?. Surface area. Moisture. Figure 42.23. Factors help to maximize exchange?. C. Transport. II. Strategies. A. Direct. Direct method = Poriferans , Cnidarians , and Platyhelminthes.

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Gas Exchange

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Gas exchange

Gas Exchange

I. Introduction

A. Why?


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B. Forces & Factors


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Forces to drive gas exchange?

Surface area

Moisture

Figure 42.23

Factors help to maximize exchange?


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C. Transport


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II. Strategies

A. Direct


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Direct method = Poriferans, Cnidarians, and Platyhelminthes

Constant water movement

Simple thin structure

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.4

What would be required to lead this life style?


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B. Gills

1. Structure


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Gills == Mollusca to Vertebrata

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.22


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Fish Gills

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3


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2. Forces


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Figure 42.21

Ram ventilation vs.

Gulping

Advantagesvs. Disadvantages

Figure 33.3


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Circulation of water coupled with perfusion of blood

Figure 42.21

Figure 42.23

Figure 33.3


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swim bladder in bony fishes via the gas gland

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 34.16


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C. Tracheal Systems

1. Insecta


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direct oxygen delivery system to the muscle fibers

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.24


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2. Chordata

a. Amphibians


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Circulate air to lungs from mouth and skin ==PP breathers

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3


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b. Reptilians


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PP breathers

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3


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c. Avians


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Negative pressure breathers move air into their lungs and air sacs

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3


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Negative pressure breathers move air into their lungs and air sacs

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.27


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d. Mammalians

i. Air tubes


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Negative breathers use muscle contractions to moveair

Figure 42.21

Figure 42.25

Figure 33.3

pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells


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ii. Lungs


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alveoli for gas exchange

Type I and Type II cells

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.25


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alveoli for gas exchange

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3


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Lung expansion == muscle contraction

Figure 42.21

Figure 42.28

Quiet versus ForcedInhalation vs. Exhalation

Figure 33.3


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iii. Control


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Pons, Medulla Oblongata, and the Hypothalamus

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.29


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iv. Transport


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partial gas pressures

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.30

Figure 42.31a & b


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Respiratory pigments transport oxygen and also buffer

CO2is transported via other mechanisms

Dissolved in plasma about 7%

Bound to globin about 23%

Travels bicarbonate shuttle about 70%

Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.28


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Figure 42.21

Figure 33.3

Figure 42.32

Figure 42.28


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Quantity doesn’t mean Quality.


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