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America and World War II. The War Ends. The Third Reich Collapses. Roosevelt knew of the atrocities the Germans were committing and believed that destroying the Nazi regime would end the concentration camps. Hedgerows : dirt walls, several feet thick, covered with shrubbery

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Presentation Transcript
the third reich collapses
The Third Reich Collapses
  • Roosevelt knew of the atrocities the Germans were committing and believed that destroying the Nazi regime would end the concentration camps.
  • Hedgerows: dirt walls, several feet thick, covered with shrubbery
  • The Battle of the Bulge: After the Allies broke through German lines and began pushing the Nazis back toward Germany, Hitler ordered one last counterattack against the Allies.
v e day the war ends in europe
V-E Day: The War Ends in Europe
  • As the Battle of the Bulge ended in the west, the Soviet Union was pushing back German forces in the east.
  • As both American and Soviet Armies pushed towards Berlin, Adolf Hitler shot himself on April 30, 1945.
  • On May 7, 1945, Germany surrendered and May 8, 1945 was declared: “Victory in Europe” or V-E Day.
roosevelt dies
Roosevelt Dies
  • April 12, 1945—Roosevelt dies of a stroke. Harry S. Truman, his vice president, becomes the President.
  • Truman to reporters: “Boys, if you ever pray, pray for me now….When they told me yesterday what had happened, I felt like the moon, stars, and all the planets had fallen on me.”
japan is defeated
Japan is Defeated
  • Uncommon Valor on Iwo Jima
    • US planes could bomb Tokyo, Japan from Iwo Jima
    • February 19, 1945—60,000 troops land on Iwo Jima
      • 6,800 troops die taking the island
japan is defeated1
Japan is Defeated
  • Firebombing Devastates Japan
    • Bombs filled with napalm, a kind of jellied gasoline, were used to make sure targets were hit.
    • Massive firestorms resulted sucking the oxygen out of the air suffocating those who did not burn.
    • 80,000 people died; 250,000 buildings were destroyed; and 67 cities were firebombed
japan is defeated2
Japan is Defeated
  • The Invasion of Okinawa
    • Despite the firebombing, Japan refused to quit.
    • An invasion was planned.
      • For an invasion to successful, the United States needed a base closer to Japan—Okinawa
    • April 1, 1945—US troops land on

Okinawa

    • June 22, 1945—Okinawa is taken

by the US

      • 12,000 American soldiers, sailors,

and marines died

japan is defeated3
Japan is Defeated
  • Terms for Surrender
    • After taking Okinawa, the Japanese Emperor encouraged the government to surrender.
    • Japanese officials were willing to surrender, but only if the Emperor could stay in place.
    • American officials demanded unconditional surrender.
      • Public opinion blamed the Emperor for starting the war and did not want him to remain in power.
      • The United States had just developed a new weapon that could force Japan to surrender without any conditions.
japan is defeated4
Japan is Defeated
  • The Manhattan Project
    • Albert Einstein had written a letter to Roosevelt warning him that the Germans might be able to build an “extremely powerful bomb of a new type” using uranium.
    • Roosevelt orders a scientific committee to study the issue.
      • The committee was skeptical until British researchers showed them their work with uranium.
      • A team of engineers and scientists is

organized to build an atomic bomb at a

secret laboratory in Los Alamos, New

Mexico. J. Robert Oppenheimer led the

team.

japan is defeated5
Japan is Defeated
  • The Decision to Drop the Bomb
    • Even before the bomb was tested, American officials began to debate how to use it.
      • Civilians would be killed indiscriminately
      • Perhaps an economic blockade and conventional bombing would force Japan to surrender.
      • Truman believed that it was his duty as President to use every weapon available to save American lives.
      • It was estimated that up to 225,000 troops would be killed during an invasion of Japan.
      • The unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor.
      • The Bataan Death March in the Philippines.
      • Japan’s use of kamikaze pilots.
      • Japan’s refusal to surrender.
      • The World needed to know the devastation that an atomic bomb would create.
japan is defeated6
Japan is Defeated
  • The Decision to Drop the Bomb
    • A B-29 bomber named the Enola Gay dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan.
      • 76,000 buildings destroyed (63% of the city).
      • 80,000 to 120,000 people killed instantly. (Thousands more died later on from burns and radiation poisoning)
    • Three days later, another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki killing 35,000 to 74,000.
    • V-J Day is declared after Japan surrenders on August 15, 1945.
building a new world
Building a New World
  • Creating the United Nations
    • The UN would have a General Assembly where every member nation in the world would have one vote.
    • A Security Council with 11 members.
      • The Security Council would have 5 permanent members
        • Great Britain, France, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States
        • These five countries would have veto powers
      • Responsible for international peace and security
        • The SC could investigate any international problems and propose settlements for countries in dispute
        • The SC could take action to preserve the peace, including asking its members to use military force to uphold UN resolutions
building a new world1
Building a New World
  • Putting the Enemy on Trial
    • Nuremberg Trials: trial of German leaders suspected of committing war crimes.
      • 22 leaders of Nazi Germany were prosecuted
        • 3 were acquitted
        • 7 were given prison sentences
        • 12 were sentenced to death
      • Lower-ranking government officials were also put on trial
        • 107 were given prison sentences
        • 24 were executed
essay question
Essay Question
  • State the names of the branches of the United Nations. Then describe the make up of each branch and its responsibilities.
essay question1
Essay Question
  • State the names of the branches of the United Nations. Then describe the make up of each branch and its responsibilities.
    • The United Nations was designed to have two branches: the General Assembly and the Security Council. In the General Assembly, every member nation in the world would have one vote. The Security Council would have 11 members Five countries would be permanent members: Britain, France, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Each permanent member would have veto power. The General Assembly could vote on resolutions, choose non-permanent members of the Security Council, and vote on the UN budget. The Security Council was responsible for international peace and security. It could investigate any international problem and propose settlements to countries that had disputes with each other,. It could also take action to preserve the peace, including asking its members to use military force to uphold a UN resolution.
essay question2
Essay Question
  • Describe the different points of view in the debate over the use of the atomic bomb and explain why Truman finally decided to use it.
essay question3
Essay Question
  • Describe the different points of view in the debate over the use of the atomic bomb and explain why Truman finally decided to use it.
    • One adviser opposed using the bomb because it would kill civilians indiscriminately. Instead he believed an economic blockade and conventional bombing might convince Japan to surrender. Another advisor wanted to warn the Japanese about the bomb while the same time telling them that they could keep the emperor if they surrendered. Another advisor wanted to drop the bomb without any warning to shock Japan into surrendering. All his advisors warned President Truman to expect massive casualties if the United Sates invaded Japan. Truman decided to drop the bomb because he believed it was his duty as the president to use every weapon available to save American lives.
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