Addressing individual challenging behavior through function based support
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Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support. George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut April 12 2011 www.pbis.org www.cber.org www.swis.org George.sugai@uconn.edu. PURPOSE

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Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support

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Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support

George Sugai

OSEP Center on PBIS

Center for Behavioral Education & Research

University of Connecticut

April 12 2011

www.pbis.orgwww.cber.orgwww.swis.org

George.sugai@uconn.edu


PURPOSE

Provide overview of defining features of function-based approach to addressing behavior.

  • Prerequisites review

  • FBA basics

  • BIP basics


Function-based support is all about…

Re-design & improvement of learning & teaching environments

  • Attention to environment & function

  • Not re-design of individuals

  • Change in behavior of plan implementers


EXAMPLES

Sensory re-integration or stimulation

Facilitated communication

Introspective psychoanalytic therapies

Rebirthing therapies

CONCERNS

Poor ecological (school) validity

Redirected specification of actual causal factors

Adverse side effects

False hopes & expectations

Inefficient use of resources & opportunities

Lack of empirical support

Non-validated Interventions for Students with EBD


Behavior Support Elements

*Response class

*Routine analysis

*Hypothesis statement

*Alternative behaviors

*Competing behavior analysis

*Contextual fit

*Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes

*Evidence-based interventions

Problem Behavior

Functional Assessment

*Implementation support

*Data plan

  • Team-based

  • Behavior competence

Intervention & Support Plan

*Continuous improvement

*Sustainability plan

Fidelity of Implementation

Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle


Outcomes (“Answers”)

  • Supporting context

    • Effective SWPBS

  • Features & requirements of function-based approach to behavior support

    • Process

  • Behavioral description of “function”

    • Get or escape/avoid

  • Steps in function-based approach to behavior intervention planning

    • Behaviorally competent team


12/32

Basics Review


Integrated

Elements

Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior


Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

FEW

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

SOME

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

ALL


7

SWPBS

Practices

School-wide

Classroom

Family

Non-classroom

  • Smallest #

  • Evidence-based

  • Biggest, durable effect

Student


ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS

  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

  • Function-based support

  • Wraparound

  • Person-centered planning

  • TERTIARY PREVENTION

~5%

~15%

  • SECONDARY PREVENTION

  • Check in/out

  • Targeted social skills instruction

  • Peer-based supports

  • Social skills club

  • SECONDARY PREVENTION

  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

  • Teach SW expectations

  • Proactive SW discipline

  • Positive reinforcement

  • Effective instruction

  • Parent engagement

  • PRIMARY PREVENTION

~80% of Students


RTI

Continuum of Support for ALL

Few

Some

All

Dec 7, 2007


12/32

FBA Basics


Behavior Support Elements

*Response class

*Routine analysis

*Hypothesis statement

*Alternative behaviors

*Competing behavior analysis

*Contextual fit

*Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes

*Evidence-based interventions

Problem Behavior

Functional Assessment

*Implementation support

*Data plan

  • Team-based

  • Behavior competence

Intervention & Support Plan

*Continuous improvement

*Sustainability plan

Fidelity of Implementation

Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle


3. How do I know if FBA has been done?


Behaviorism

SWPBS Conceptual Foundations

Laws of Behavior

ABA

Applied Behavioral Technology

PBS

Social Validity

SWPBS

All Students


Testable Hypothesis

“Basic Unit”

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Infrequent events that affect value of maint. conseq.

Following events that maintain behaviors of concern (function)

Preceding events that trigger or occasion

Set of related behaviors of concern (RC)

  • “Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observed

  • Represents basic working unit of FBA

  • Directly guides development of BIP


Setting Events

  • Unique situations in which factors unique to individual

    • Make problem behavior more intense or more likely to occur (e.g., illness, fatigue, hunger, social conflict).

  • By changing value of reinforcers

    E.g., praise less effective, peer attention is more reinforcing, work completion is less important.


  • Work completion is less important (reinforcing) to Demetri after he has had an argument with his girlfriend before class, or

  • Cologne’s use of verbal profanity is more likely (escape) when she hasn’t had enough sleep night before, or

  • Peer attention is less distracting (reinforcing) when Manuella isn’t feeling well.


  • Lack of sleep decreases value (reinforcement) of getting to school on time, increases value of going to Hot Dog Haven.

  • Lack of breakfast increases value (reinforcement) of getting sent to office (by fending machines) for failing to follow directions.

  • Having a fight with boyfriend decreases value (reinforcement) of listening to lecture.

  • Getting >50% of problem wrong decreases value (reinforcement) of starting new worksheets.


“FUNCTION”= outcome, result, purpose, consequence


Only 2 Basic Functions

Pos Reinf

Neg Reinf

Existing aversive condition identified


Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai, 2005


When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful.

Avoid difficult tasks

What function?

Setting event

Antecedent

Response

Consequence

Sequoia makes

negative self-

statements &

writes profane

language

Teacher sends

Sequoia to

office for being

disrespectful

Misses 12:30

medication

Teachers

make

multiple

task demands


Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention.

Escape adult &

peer attention

What function?

Setting event

Antecedent

Response

Consequence

Caesar is

teased several

times about his

hair by his

friends before

class

His teacher

stares at his

hair in class

Caesar asks

his teacher

what she’s

staring at

His teacher

sends him to

in-school

detention


Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day.

Escape peer attention

What function?

Setting event

Antecedent

Response

Consequence

New student

Student

approaches &

speaks in

English

Cleo turns

away

Other

student walks

away


When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment.

Access peer &

adult attention

What function?

Setting event

Antecedent

Response

Consequence

Teacher asks

what capitol

city of country

is

Napoleon

give correct

answer

Teacher gives

verbal praise

& time to work

with a friend

None


As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!”“Ya want some of this?!”“Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.”

Access OR escape

peer attention?

What function?

Setting event

Antecedent

Response

Consequence

How do you know?

Assess?

How do you know?

??

Look at him.

“What’s up!”

“Who ya

lookin’ at?”

“Ya want

Some?”“Ya

talkin’ to me?

Kids shake

heads &

call him

“weirdo”


TE is “best guess.”What if testable hypothesis is incomplete or inaccurate?


Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers “FACTS”

STEP 1: Student/ Grade: _____Clarence/5th grade_____Date: ____January 11___________

Interviewer: ___________Sugai________Respondent(s): ____Thomas_____

STEP 2: Student Profile: Please identify at least three strengths or contributions the student brings to school.

C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to him, and he can be very convincing and sincere. He’s academically competent and seems to be moving smoothly and successfully through the school curriculum.

STEP 3: Problem Behavior(s): Identify problem behaviors

___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___ Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___ Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__ Verbal Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________ ____X _ Verbally Inappropriate___ Self-injury

Describe problem behavior:C. may have one of the shortest fuses I’ve seen. One little tease by a peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates through a behavioral sequence that begins with passive in subordination (non response), moves to a mild protest, shifts to harassment and name calling, increases to property damage and even to physical aggression. Its interesting that he seems to “enjoy” the reactions he gets from peers that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look up to him for his aggressiveness.


STEP 4: Routine Analysis


Fundamental Rule!

“You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors person should perform instead of problem behavior”

O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71


Desired

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Summary Statement

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Acceptable

Alternative


Summary Statement

Desired

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Points,

grades,

questions,

more work.

Do work

w/o

complaints.

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Noncompliance,

profanity,

physical

aggression,

Lack of peer

contact in 30

minutes.

Do difficult

math

assignment.

Avoid task,

remove from

class.

Function

Acceptable

Alternative

Why is function important?

Ask for

break,

ask for

help.

Because consequences

compete!!


Desired

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Summary Statement

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Acceptable

Alternative


Setting Event

Manipulations

Antecedent

Manipulations

Behavior

Manipulations

Consequence

Manipulations


Summary Statement

Desired

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Points,

grades,

questions,

more work.

Do work

w/o

complaints.

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Noncompliance,

profanity,

physical

aggression,

Lack of peer

contact in 30

minutes.

Do difficult

math

assignment.

Avoid task,

remove from

class.

Function

Acceptable

Alternative

Ask for

break,

ask for

help.


Setting Event

Manipulations

Antecedent

Manipulations

Behavior

Manipulations

Consequence

Manipulations

Immediately reinforce entering class.

Provide reinforcer w/in 1 min. of starting task (3 min., 5 min., 10 minutes)

Give break & help

Sit with preferred peer when done

Arrange for peer interaction before math class

Provide positive adult contact

Sit with preferred peer

Introduce review type problem before difficult tasks

Remind of alternative behaviors

Do first problem together

Teach options to problem behavior:

1. Ask for break

2. Ask for help

3. Turn in assignment as is.

Teach missing math skills


Summary Statement

Desired

Alternative

Typical

Consequence

Ignore &

problem

solve

later

Delayed

teacher

attention.

Setting Events

Triggering

Antecedents

Problem

Behavior

Maintaining

Consequences

Profanity

Verbal

protests

Rides city

bus

Teacher

corrects

peers

Teacher

attention

Function

Acceptable

Alternative

Discuss

in

private


Setting Event

Manipulations

Antecedent

Manipulations

Behavior

Manipulations

Consequence

Manipulations

When J. engages in problem behavior immediately disengage from him, & engage peers.

When J. engages in replacement behaviors provide adult attention (discussion)

On days city bus ridden, check in with counselor to review days schedule & walk with counselor to classroom

Give >3 positive acknow-ledgements per min. to peers during transitions.

Give private & quiet corrections to peers.

Remind J. of acceptable & desired replacement behaviors

Teach J. how, when, & where to express verbal protest, & how to walk away from problem situations in transitions.


Do quiz without

complaints.

Discussion about

answers & homework.

On Mondays and/or

when up all of the

night before.

Daily nongraded quiz

on previous night’s

homework

Verbal protests, slump

in chair, walks out of

room.

Avoids doing quiz &

homework discussion.

Turn in with name &

sit quietly w/o

interrupting.


Do quiz without

complaints.

Discussion about

answers & homework.

On Mondays and/or

when up all of the

night before.

Daily nongraded quiz

on previous night’s

homework

Verbal protests, slump

in chair, walks out of

room.

Avoids doing quiz &

homework discussion.

Turn in with name &

sit quietly w/o

interrupting.

+ Give time to review

homework.

+ Give quiet time before starting.

+ Give easy “warm-up” task before doing quiz.

+ Precorrect behavior options & consequences.

+ With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, or

request completion of task next period.

+ Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO).

+ Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers.

Teach options to problem behavior:

1. Turn in blank

2. Turn in w/ name

3. Turn in w/ name & first item done.

4. Turn in w/ name & 50% of items done.


7. How quality of function-based behavior intervention plans be improved?


FBA/BIP Team Process Steps


6 FBA Misrules

  • Only one way to conduct FBA….

    • FA process is basically same

    • Methods for collecting data may vary

      • Observe

      • Ask

      • Review records

      • Test

NO


  • Must do everything every time….

    • Base FBA activity on what you know

    • FBA is systematic planning process

NO


  • Everyone has to know how to do a full FBA….

    • Small number of people must have high fluency

    • All people must know process & what to expect

    • Some individuals must work on sustainability

NO


  • FBA is it…..

    • One component of comprehensive plan of behavior support

      academic, medical, vocational, mental health, etc.

NO


  • FBA is only for students with disabilities…

    • Process for behavior of all individuals across multiple settings

NO


6. “Power,”“authority,”“control,” etc. are functions….

2 research validated functions

Pos. & Neg. Reinf.

NO


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