Investigating people at work
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Investigating people at work. The Functions of Businesses. Lesson Objectives. In this lesson we will look at How businesses are structured Tall and flat organisations Organisation structures The role of departments and the way they can be arranged The role of managers and supervisors.

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Investigating people at work

Investigating people at work

The Functions of Businesses

Investigating people at work - Functions


Lesson objectives

Lesson Objectives

  • In this lesson we will look at

    • How businesses are structured

    • Tall and flat organisations

    • Organisation structures

    • The role of departments and the way they can be arranged

    • The role of managers and supervisors

Investigating people at work - Functions


The functions of businesses

Every business can be divided up into a number of functions, or departments.

Some organisations will have functions unique to them. Airlines will have an engineering function and a newspaper will have newsroom and advertising functions

Typically these are:-

Production

Marketing

Sales

Finance

Administration

Human Resources (HR)

Information Technology (IT)

The Functions of Businesses

Investigating people at work - Functions


Production

Production

  • In a manufacturing organisation the PRODUCTION function is responsible for planning the creation of the product and ensuring quality is maintained

Investigating people at work - Functions


Marketing

Marketing

  • Before a product is designed MARKETING will try and find out what customers want and plan advertising to attract them to the product

Investigating people at work - Functions


Sales

Sales

  • Once MARKETING have found out what the customers want, the SALES function will try and persuade them to buy

Investigating people at work - Functions


Finance

Finance

  • This function covers every financial matter in the business such as-

    • Budgets

    • Production costing

    • Financial reporting

Investigating people at work - Functions


Administration

Administration

  • ADMINSTRATION creates and manages systems for keeping the business running. These might include:-

    • Catering

    • Supplies

    • Transport

Investigating people at work - Functions


Human resources hr

Human Resources (HR)

  • Personnel management, including:-

    • Recruitment

    • Contracts of Employment

    • Training

    • Welfare

    • Industrial relations

Investigating people at work - Functions


Information technology it

Information Technology (IT)

  • Responsible for systems such as

    • Internet

    • Intranet

    • Management and functional systems unique to that company

    • Website management

Investigating people at work - Functions


Tall flat organisations

Tall organisations have a ‘layered’ structure

Today ‘flat’ is more common, with main activity being supported by subsidiary activities (sometimes outsourced)

Tall & Flat Organisations

Sales and marketing

MAIN ACTIVITY

Production

Accounts

Warehouse

SUPPORTING ACTIVITIES

Administration

Investigating people at work - Functions


Organisational structures

Organisational Structures

  • An organisation can be structured to reflect specific departments or,

  • Can have more specific structures:-

    • By product or service

    • By customer

    • By process or equipment

    • Matrix structure

Investigating people at work - Functions


By product or service

Schools

Division by product or service

Examples are

A supermarket by products supplied

The BBC by media and audience

Local Council by services provided

By product or service

Schools

Planning

Leisure

Housing

Parks

Envrmnt

Investigating people at work - Functions


By customer

By customer

  • Some businesses divide up by type of customer. A firm of solicitors might have these departments:-

    • Conveyancing

    • Matrimonial

    • Criminal

    • Accidents & Injury

    • Probate (wills etc)

Investigating people at work - Functions


By process or equipment

By process or equipment

  • Division by process or machinery

  • A steelworks may have departments specialising in wire making, plate steel, stainless steel and so on

  • An insurance company may have sections for accounts, claims, investments and so on

Investigating people at work - Functions


Matrix structure

Matrix structure

  • Allows cross referencing between functional departments and project-specific teams

  • Brings together specialists for a particular task

  • Look at example on Page 17 of the textbook

Investigating people at work - Functions


Activity

Activity

  • Think of an organisation you have been part of for example:-

    • Work experience

    • Young enterprise

    • Part-time work

  • Construct a simple organisation structure on the same lines as Figure 1.17 on p17.

Investigating people at work - Functions


Role of management supervisors

In typical organisation manager reports to director

Responsible for

Staff

Planning, organisation and delivery

Meeting customer needs

Supervisors usually have responsibility for

Specific group of workers

Deadlines being met

Supervision of staff

Some legal responsibities

(H&S for example)

Role of Management & Supervisors

Investigating people at work - Functions


Lesson objectives1

Lesson Objectives

  • In this lesson we looked at

    • How businesses are structured

    • Tall and flat organisations

    • Organisation structures

    • The role of departments and the way they can be arranged

    • The role of managers and supervisors

Investigating people at work - Functions


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