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Nutrition. What are Calories?. Way food scientists measure food energy Kilocalorie – the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram (1 liter) of water 1 degree Celsius – aka calorie. Sources of Calories. Carbohydrates – 4 per gram Protein – 4 per gram

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What are calories l.jpg
What are Calories?

  • Way food scientists measure food energy

  • Kilocalorie – the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram (1 liter) of water 1 degree Celsius – aka calorie


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Sources of Calories

  • Carbohydrates – 4 per gram

  • Protein – 4 per gram

  • Fat – 9 per gram

  • Alcohol – 7 per gram


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Essential Nutrients

  • Carbohydrates

  • Protein

  • Fats

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

  • Water


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Provides energy

4 calories per gram (size of a small paper clip)

Simple Carbs

Refined sugars

Contain no other nutrients – proteins, vitamins, minerals, or fiber

Broken down quickly – mostly in small intestines

Complex Carbs

Broken down slowly

Slows down digestion – less hungry

Eating proper amount provides energy for body

Carbs have less calories gram for gram than dietary fats

Human bodies must convert glucose to fats – which in the process causes most of the calories to be lost

Carbohydrates


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Benefits of Complex Carbohydrates

  • Reduce risk of colon cancer

  • Reduce energy consumption – helps with weight control

  • Reduce risk of heart and artery disease

  • Promote feeling of fullness

  • Prevent bacterial infections

  • Keep muscles of digestive tract healthy


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Protein

  • Builds and repairs the body

  • 4 calories per gram


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Fats

  • Stored energy

  • 9 calories per gram

  • Saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fats


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Vitamins

  • Regulates body functions

  • Should come from diet

  • No calories or energy value


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Minerals

  • act to build and regulate the body's tissues and organs, bones and muscles

  • No calories or energy value


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Water

  • Helps regulate body temperature

  • 8 glasses per day

  • Increase with physical activity

  • No calories or energy value


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Where calories should come from:

  • 50-60% from carbohydrates

  • 12-15% protein

  • less than 30% from fat


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Types of energy

  • Protein – gives body energy in same way as carbs – no advantage over carbs

  • Fats – cause problems

  • Carbs – preferred energy souce


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Body’s use of “fuels”

  • Uses mix of carbohydrates (glucose), fatty acids, and amino acids (protein) for energy.

  • During rest: ½ from fats ½ from carbs

  • Physical activity: mostly glucose – sends energy throughout body – leads to use of fat and protein

  • A high carb diet can triple an athlete’s endurance

  • High fat diet: 57 minutes of maximum endurance

  • Normal mixed diet: 114 minutes of maximum endurance

  • High carb diet: 167 minutes of maximum endurance


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MyPyramidUSDA’s New Food Guidance System

United States Department of Agriculture

Center for Nutrition Policy & Promotion


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What does the 2005 Pyramid tells us?


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Anatomy of My Pyramid

Activity = by the steps and the person climbing them, the importance of daily physical activity.

Moderation = the narrowing of each food group from bottom to top. The wider base stands for foods with little or no solid fats or added sugars. These should be selected more often. The narrower top area stands for foods containing more added sugars and solid fats. The more active you are, the more of these foods can fit into your diet.

Personalization = the person on the steps, the slogan, and the URL. Find the kinds of amounts of food to eat each day at MyPyramid.gov.

Proportionality = the different widths of the food group bands. The widths suggest how much food a person should choose from each group. The widths are just a general guide, not exact proportions. Check the Web site for how much is right for you.

Variety = symbolized by the 6 color bands representing the 5 food groups of the

Pyramid and oils. Foods from all groups are needed each day for good health.

Gradual Improvement = encouraged by the slogan. It suggests that individuals can

benefit from taking small steps to improve their diet and lifestyle each day.


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Message: Physical Activity

In the Dietary Guidelines:

  • Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well-being, and a healthy body weight.

    In MyPyramid graphic:

  • Steps and person on them symbolize that physical activity should be a part of everyday healthy living.


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Message: Moderation

In the Dietary Guidelines:

  • Limit intake of saturated and trans fats, and choose products low in these fats.

  • Make choices of meat, poultry, dry beans, and milk products that are lean, low-fat, or fat-free.

  • Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or calorie sweeteners.

    In MyPyramid graphic:

  • Food group bands narrow from

    bottom to top suggesting to eat

    nutrient-dense forms of foods.


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Additional Messages in the MyPyramid GraphicTo foster implementation

Personalization:

  • The name “MyPyramid” suggests an individual approach.

  • The person climbing the steps mentally links each viewer to the image.

    Gradual Improvement:

  • The slogan “Steps to a Healthier You” suggests that improvement should happen in stages, over time.


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Message: Proportionality

In the Dietary Guidelines:

  • Adopt a balanced eating pattern.

    • Sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables,

    • 3 or more ounce equivalents of whole-grain products per day

    • 3 cup equivalents per day of fat-free or low-fat milk or milk products.

      In MyPyramid graphic:

  • Differing widths of the color bands suggest about how much food should be eaten from each group.



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Final Graphic Design

Activity Proportionality

Moderation Variety

Personalization Gradual

Improvement


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Key food group messages from the Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid:

Focus on fruits.

Vary your veggies.

Get your calcium-rich foods.

Make half your grains whole.

Go lean with protein.

Know the limits on fats, salt, and sugars.


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Pyramid Power MyPyramid:Milk, Yogurt, & Cheese Group


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Pyramid Power MyPyramid:Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs & Nuts


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Pyramid Power MyPyramid:Vegetable Group


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Pyramid Power MyPyramid:Fruit Group


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Pyramid Power MyPyramid:Bread, Cereal, Rice & Pasta Group


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Dietary Guidelines MyPyramid:Weight Management

  • 2005

  • Balance calories from food and beverages w/ calories expended.

  • Follow USDA Food Guide for appropriate calorie requirements based on age and physical activity levels.


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Dietary Guidelines MyPyramid:Adequate Nutrients

  • Consume a variety of nutrient dense foods and beverages. Follow a balanced eating pattern such as USDA Food Guide or DASH eating plan


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Dietary Guidelines MyPyramid:Food Group to Encourage

  • 2 cups fruit

  • 2 ½ veggies, Consume enough fruits and veggies while staying w/i energy needs.

  • At least ½ of grains should be whole grain at least 3 oz.

  • 3 cups of milk fat-free, low-fat or equivalent.


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Dietary Guidelines MyPyramid:Fat

  • Keep total fat between 20 – 35 % of calories w/ most fats coming from polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats.


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Dietary Guidelines MyPyramid:Salt

  • Consume < 2,300 mg include potassium-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables.


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Salt MyPyramid:


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Dietary Guidelines MyPyramid:Sugar

  • Choose and prepare food with little added sugar or caloric sweeteners


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Sugar MyPyramid:


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Dietary Guidelines MyPyramid:Physical Activity

  • Engage in activity, 30 minutes a day on most days of the week. To manage weight, engage in activity 60 minutes a day on most days of the week of moderate or vigorous activity w/o exceeding calorie intake requirements


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Dietary Guidelines MyPyramid:Food Safety

  • Clean hands, surfaces and produce. Meat and poultry should not be washed or rinsed

  • Avoided raw unpasteurized milk or products made from unpasteurized milk, raw or partially raw cooked eggs or food containing raw or undercooked eggs, meat, poultry, unpasteurized juices or raw sprouts.


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--2005-- MyPyramid:MyPyramid


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Reasons for Revising— MyPyramid:Updating the Science

  • To ensure that the guidance reflects the latest nutrition science

    • New nutrient standards—DRI

    • New Dietary Guidelines

    • Food consumption and composition data


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Developing Food Intake Patterns MyPyramid:

  • Determine calorie needs

  • Set nutrient goals

  • Calculate nutrient profiles for each food group, based on

    • Nutrient content of foods in group

    • Food consumption

  • Construct food patterns that meet goals


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Determine Calorie Needs MyPyramid:Estimated Energy Requirements* for males

*From the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes Macronutrient Report


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Construct Food Intake Patterns MyPyramid:

  • Establish initial amount from each food group

  • Compare resulting nutrient content to nutritional goals

  • Change amounts from food groups stepwise

    • Identify groups or subgroups that are the most feasible nutrient sources

    • Check amounts recommended against typical consumption

  • Remaining calories after nutrient needs were met were identified as “discretionary calories”


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Discretionary Calories MyPyramid:May be used to:

  • Increase amount of food selected from a food group

  • Consume foods that are not in the lowest fat form—such as 2% milk or medium-fat meat or items that contain added sugars

  • Add oil, fat, or sugar to foods

  • Consume alcohol (for those who consume alcohol)


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Servings MyPyramid:

Daily Amounts

in cups or ounces


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Implementation MyPyramid:

  • Implementation is the challenge ahead.

  • Health/education professionals are vital for success.

  • It will be an ongoing process.

  • Working together, we can help Americans to be healthier.


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Convenience Foods MyPyramid:

What are convenience foods?


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Convenience Foods MyPyramid:


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What is a convenience food? MyPyramid:

Pre- packed frozen entrées

TV dinners

Boxed meals, add meat

Fast Foods – Drive Thru

Carry out

Order & Pick up

Convenience Foods


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Cons MyPyramid:

2 x’s more sodium than if food was made from scratch

Less nutritionally beneficial ingredients (added sugars and preservatives)

Convenience Foods


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Pros MyPyramid:

Allow for quality “family” time for working parents

Variety

Ease & quick to prepare

Convenience Foods


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Fast food, late 1930’s w/ Carl’s, McDonald’s and Burger King

1940’s Wendy’s, KFC, Taco Bell, etc

Easy to find

Easy for working parents to depend on

Fast food, obesity has been on the rise

65% of fast food business is drive-through

“For every 6 seconds saved at the drive through, sales increase by 1 %.” Per McD’s Jack Greenberg

Increased Access to Fast Food


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Fast Food Fat Burger King


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Labels Burger King


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Required on all Labels Burger King

  • Name

  • Net weight or net contents

  • Artificial coloring, flavoring, preservatives

  • Name & address of production

  • style/product description

  • Special info affecting those with health problems

  • List of ingredients – most to least


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Notes to know Burger King

  • Ingredients largest to smallest

  • % of daily value based on 2000 calorie diet (indicated in one serving)

  • Total sodium intake < 2300 mg per day

  • Nutritional facts required when claims made


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Label Conformity Burger King

  • Serving or portion sizes

  • Servings or portions per container

  • Calories from fat per serving

  • % DV – fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate

  • % Vit A, C, calcium & iron

  • % DV based on a 2,000 or 2,500 cal diet


Labels nutritional claims l.jpg

Low in – can be eaten frequently w/o exceeding recommended amount

Cal – 40 or less

Fat – 3 g or less

Sat fat – < 1 g

Cholesterol - <20mg

Sodium - <140 mg

Reduced, less, or fewer - > 25% less of something than a comparison food

Light – reduced by > 1/3 regular product

Good source of – 10-19% DV for a nutrient

High source of fiber - > 20% DV fiber

Labels & Nutritional claims


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Label-Ease amount


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Label-Ease Step 1 amount

  • Make a fist

  • Raise one finger for each nutrient -

    Calcium

    Fiber

    Protein

    Iron

    Vitamin A

    Vitamin C

    that has 10% or more listed for % DV


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Label-Ease Step 2 amount

  • Fingers from step one should be up

  • Choose to focus on fat grams or calories

  • For fat, put one finger down if % DV is > 10%

  • For calories, put one finger down if total calories > 200 per serving


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Label-Ease Score amount

  • Nutrient-plus food – at least one finger remaining

  • Nutrient-minus food – no fingers up

Good

Better


P o r t i o n d i s t o r t i o n l.jpg

“Bigger is Better” amount

Need to get your money’s worth when eating out

Example

Serving of juice = 4 oz.

Bottles in a vending machine = 16 oz.

4 servings in one bottle – consumed in one seating

PortionDistortion



Bagel l.jpg

20 Years Ago amount

3 inch diameter

140 calories

Today

6 inch diameter

350 calories

Bagel


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20 Years Ago amount

333 calories

Today

590 calories

Cheeseburger


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7 Ways to Help Cure amountPortion distortion

Eat portions the size of a small fist

Watch out for inflation

Snack before dinner

Split the entrée

Think small

Don’t serve from the table

Beware of eating in front of the TV

Check this out


Liquid calories l.jpg

Where do they come from? amount

Pop

Juice

Sports Drinks

Fruit Drinks

Sweetened teas

* All calories count!

Liquid Calories


Orange juice l.jpg

4 oz. serving amount

60 calories

16 oz bottle

240 calories

Orange Juice


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Can of pop = 150 calories amount

x 4 cans a day

600 additional calories

x 7 days week

4,200 additional calories

The average high student will drink the equivalent of 4 cans of pop in a day


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Can of pop = 150 calories amount

x 4 cans a day

600 additional calories

x 7 a week

4,200 additional calories

x 52 weeks in a year

?

The average high student will drink the equivalent of 4 cans of pop in a day


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4,200 calories a week amount

The average high student will drink the equivalent of 28 cans of pop in a week


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218,400 calories = amount

The year total is

62.4 lbs a year





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Obesity amount

Diabetes (Type II)

High Blood Pressure

Hyperlipidemia

* A direct correlation to poor diet choices, genetics and environment.

Early 90’s patterns of risk factors in children started rising upward.

4 Common high-risk diagnoses


Obesity l.jpg

BMI > 85 to 95 percentile (Adult 25 to 30) amount

Begins commonly at 5 – 6 years old

Studies show a children who is obese between the ages 10 to 13 has a 80 % chance of being an obese adult

16 to 33 % children are obese in the US

2/3 of adults in the US

Obesity is one of the medical conditions that is easy diagnose but difficult to treat

$100 billion annually

Obesity


Diabetes l.jpg

Was the disease of 50 to 60 years old, NOW effects kids as years as 6.

Hispanic & African-Americans 2:1

1:3 in the US born in 2000 are at risk

5.9 million unaware

1990 to 1998 - 33% increase

Diabetes


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58 million, 6 and older, or 1 in 5 years as 6.

1/3 are unaware

120/80 is normal for teens & adults

Diagnosis is tricky, no outward symptoms. Three reading to make a average base line reading for a child.

High Blood Pressure


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Hyperlipidemia years as 6.

  • Related to food choices, lifestyle, physical inactivity, genetics, and obesity

  • Lead to heart disease

  • HDL levels >/= 35

  • Triglycerides >/= 150


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Tips to eating out years as 6.

  • Pass on the bread or tortilla chips

  • Hold the cheese and mayo, 100 calories

  • Ask for ½ of the entrée to be boxed to go prior to serving

  • Salad dressing on side, dip each bite

  • Ask for foods to be cooked with less fat

  • Choose meats that are grilled, baked or broiled

  • Avoid cheese or cream sauces

  • Share


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Tips for Fast Food years as 6.

  • Order a kid’s meal

  • Grilled sandwich

  • Skip the cheese and mayo

  • Skip the fries, add fruit or salad

  • Avoid regular soda, fruit punch or lemonade

  • Use salad dressing sparingly – the big packets of dressing is almost 3 servings compared to a bottle used at home


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Improving Physical Activity years as 6.

  • 1 in 3 do not participate n a regular vigorous activity

  • Regular participate drops from 73 % of freshman to 61 % of seniors.

  • ½ not enrolled in PE, 29 % attend daily PE

  • Contributed to the 100 % increase in childhood obesity since 1980



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Evaluating Nutrition Information years as 6.

  • Who said it?

  • Motivation for the individual giving the information

  • What is said?


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Sources of Reliable Nutrition Education years as 6.

  • Reputable Scientific Journals

  • Reputable Scientific Organizations

  • Research/Public Information Agencies

  • Government Agencies

  • Registered Dieticians

  • People with advanced degrees in HUMAN NUTRITION from a reputable university


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Serving Size Quiz years as 6.

What does a serving size look like?


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QUIZ: What Makes a Serving? years as 6.

 A huge bag of Ruffles is helping you get through your science homework. You polish off about ½ a bag or 50 chips. How many servings of chips have you just eaten?

  • 1

  • 2 1/2

  • 5


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The Answer: C years as 6.

  • An official serving of Ruffles is one ounce, which is about 10 chips. Half a bag is 5 servings.


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QUIZ: What Makes a Serving? years as 6.

  • One serving of steak is about as big as:

  • A deck of cards

  • A Howie Day CD

    with case

    c.A paperback book


The answer a l.jpg
The Answer: A years as 6.

  • An official serving of steak is three ounces or about as big as a deck of cards. A typical slab you would get at a steak house would be five times that size.


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QUIZ: What Makes a Serving? years as 6.

  • According to the label on a package of Oreos, one serving has 100 calories and five grams of fat. How many cookies are

    in a serving?

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3


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The Answer: B years as 6.

  • An official serving of Oreos is 2 cookies. But who can stop at just 2?


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QUIZ: What Makes a Serving? years as 6.

  • The label on your favorite brand of ultrasinful ice cream says that one serving has a killer 300 calories and 15 grams of fat. How many scoops are in one serving?

  • 3

  • 2

  • 1


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Answer: C years as 6.

  • One official serving is one scoop, just ½ a cup.


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QUIZ: What Makes a Serving? years as 6.

  • One “official” serving of french fries contains 3 ounces. How many servings are in a McDonald’s Super Size french fries?

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3


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Answer: C years as 6.

  • A Super Size order of french fries contains three official servings, adding up to 540 calories.


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QUIZ: What Makes a Serving? years as 6.

  • A 7-Eleven Double Gulp contains how many servings of soda?

  • 2

  • 4

  • 8


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Answer: C years as 6.

  • A Double Gulp has eight servings, more than enough to quench the thirst of a large family. A can of soda contains 1 ½ servings.



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