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Learning, Motivation and Performance. Chapter #3. Learning Outcomes. By the conclusion of this discussion you should: More thoroughly understand what motivates people to learn and to perform. Be able to put together a 5 min training on a motivational theory

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Learning outcomes l.jpg
Learning Outcomes

  • By the conclusion of this discussion you should:

    • More thoroughly understand what motivates people to learn and to perform.

    • Be able to put together a 5 min training on a motivational theory

    • Understand learning, how it progress’s, why it is resisted, and how differently people learn.


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Factors Underlying Individual Performance

Learning

Aptitude

Role

Perceptions

Ability

KSA

Performance

Motivation

Effort

Task

Work

Environment


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Motivation

  • Motivation: The direction, persistence and amount of effort expended by someone in order to achieve a desired outcome.

    • Cognitive (mental structure: thinking, memory)

    • Can’t be directly observed

    • Defined in terms of effects on behavior

  • Two groups of theories to explain motivation:

    • Need

    • Process


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Group Break-out Instructions

  • Assumptions: Everyone has read the chapter. Each of you are protégés of the theorists.

  • Discuss in depth the theory your group has been assigned. Come to a common understanding on the content.

  • Identify:

    • Underlying principles of theory

    • Implications for trainers and the training process

  • Outcome: Assign 2 members to give a five minute presentation to the class. Be creative in your training. Your objective is for your audience to understand the theory and its importance in the training arena. I.e. demonstrate how it works, give real life examples, experiment with your audience.


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ERG Theory

  • Developed by Clayton Alderfer 1969

    • Based on the work of A. Maslow

    • Existence Needs – needs people have to sustain life (food, shelter, ,etc.)

    • Relatedness Needs – needs people have to belong and feel accepted by others.

    • Growth Needs – needs people have to accomplish goals and stretch their limits.


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S

R

C

stimulus

response

consequence

Reinforcement Theory

  • Developed by E. L. Thorndike and modified by B. F. Skinner (operant conditioning)

    • Law of effect – behavior followed by satisfying experiences will be repeated and behavior followed by dissatisfying experiences will be avoided.

    • Operant Conditioning:


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Reinforcement Theory

  • Four Consequences:

    • Positive Reinforcement – when a person’s behavior results in something desirable

    • Negative Reinforcement – when a person’s behavior results in removal of something that is disliked or frustrating.

    • Whether the reinforcement is positive or negative, it increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.


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Reinforcement Theory

  • Four Consequences

    • Punishment- when something undesirable happens to you and it decreases the likelihood that your behavior will be repeated

      • Punishment reduces the future likelihood of a behavior

    • Extinction – a form of punishment that results from losing something that was desirable


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Expectancy Theory

  • Developed by Victor Vroom (1964)

  • Tries to describe the cognitive processes involved in deciding how to satisfy needs.

  • Mathematical in nature

  • Takes into account the fact that people are motivated by different things.


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Expectancy Theory of Motivation

E

E

1

E

2

V

Expectancy

X

Instrumentality

Valence

Effort

X

=

Effort

Performance

Perform.

Outcome

Value of Outcome

Does trainee have ability

to learn?

Does the trainee believe

that training outcomes

promised will be

delivered?

Are outcomes promised

valued by the trainee?

Does trainee believe

they can learn?


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Self-Efficacy

  • Feelings about one’s own competency

  • Associated with a belief that one can and will perform successfully.

    • Low: concerns about failure

  • High self-efficacy has been linked to better performance.

  • Plays a role in expectancy theory

  • Training can improve self-efficacy


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Understanding Learning

  • Learning: relatively permanent change in cognition, resulting from experience and directly influencing behavior.

    • Short-lived changes in cognition are not included

    • Not dependent on behavior change

    • Tied to memory (changing in neural functioning)


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Gagne’s Learning Types

  • Signal Learning - generalized response (typically non-voluntary) to a signal in the environment

    • Classical conditioning – Pavlov

    • i.e. salivation

  • Stimulus-response – single response to a single stimulus as a result of consequence to response

    • Operant conditioning/reinforcement theory

    • i.e. Touch a hot stove – learn not to touch the stove


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Gagne’s Learning Types

  • Shaping – learning by linking appropriate behaviors together and learning the reinforcing consequences that are linked to the behavior set.

    • Reinforcing movement in the right direction

  • Verbal association – linking a verbal response to an object or event in the environment. Stimulus becomes language.

    • Vocabulary

    • Training must start at the verbal association level


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Gagne’s Learning Types

  • Multiple discrimination – learning to identify key aspects of differing situations and then apply the appropriate responses.

  • Concept learning – learning to make a common response to situations that have common characteristics but are otherwise different.

    • generalization


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Gagne’s Learning Types

  • Principle learning – learning to combined multiple concepts together and apply knowledge for use in specific situations.

    • Required for procedural and strategic knowledge

  • Problem solving – learning that combines more than one principle to create a new response.

    • Results in a higher-order principle.


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Social Learning Theory

  • Developed by A. Bandura

  • Basis: learning can occur simply by observation of what is going on around you.

    • Observing behavior and consequence

    • Motivation – want/desire consequence

    • Attention – visually appealing/different

    • Retention – store & remember

  • Reproduce behavior


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Resistance to Learning

  • Fear of unknown

  • Fear of incompetence

  • Fear of losing rewards

  • Fear of lost influence

  • Lost investments


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Adult Learning Principles

  • Adults learn differently

  • Adult learner:

    • Practicality

    • Value & Utility

    • Life-, Task, or Problem-centered

    • Ready to Learn

    • Control over Learning

    • Share Experiences

    • Involvement in Process


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Conclusion

  • Training professionals must understand the basics of performance and motivation in order to effectively design and deliver training programs.

  • Learning is individual and each learner must be assessed individually in order for learning to occur.


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