American imperialism and expansion
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American Imperialism and Expansion. Ch. 10. USA did not want to be left behind in growth of nations. Began its’ own policy of Imperialism . Dominating another nation economically, politically, culturally, or militarily. Why Imperialism occurs: Economic-need for resources, markets.

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American imperialism and expansion

American Imperialism and Expansion

Ch. 10


American imperialism and expansion

  • USA did not want to be left behind in growth of nations.

  • Began its’ own policy of Imperialism.

    • Dominating another nation economically, politically, culturally, or militarily.

  • Why Imperialism occurs:

    • Economic-need for resources, markets.

    • Nationalism-love for one’s country.

    • Military-Western nations superior.

    • Humanitarian-Spread civilization, religion.


Early american imperialism

Early American Imperialism

  • America first began expansionist policies in early 1800s.

  • 1820s-Monroe Doctrine-USA will stay neutral in European wars; wants Europe to stay out of western hemisphere.

  • 1830s-1850s-Manifest Destiny.

    • Took/won/bought land from Mexico, Spain.

  • 1867-William Seward purchases Alaska from Russia.

    • Called “Seward’s Folly”; was believed nothing of value in Alaska.

  • 1853-Commodore Matthew Perry forces Japan to trade with USA.


American imperialism and expansion

William Seward


American imperialism and expansion

Commodore Matthew Perry


American imperialism and expansion

  • 1860s-USA, European nations open trade with China.

  • 1867-USA annexes Midway Islands in Pacific.

  • 1875-USA signs treaty with Hawaii, allowing Hawaii to sell sugar to USA without tariffs.

  • 1870-President Grant expands Monroe Doctrine.

    • USA will protect Latin America and Caribbean islands from European expansion.

  • USA is now dominant power in western hemisphere.


Reasons for expansion

Reasons for Expansion

  • Economic Growth.

    • USA had built powerful industrial economy.

      • Produced more than we needed, needed export markets.

    • Some US companies already dominated international business.

      • Standard Oil, American Telephone & Telegraph.

    • Some Americans invested in businesses in S. America.

      • United Fruit Co. exported 50 million bunches of bananas/year to USA.

      • Led to calling S. American countries Banana republics.


American imperialism and expansion

  • Protecting American security.

    • Need foreign markets, and need strong navy to protect those markets.

      • Laid out by Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan.

    • Congress authorized construction of more battleships, gunboats, torpedo boats, etc.

    • By 1900, USA had one of the most powerful navies.

  • Preserving American Spirit.

    • With close of western frontier, some said we needed new conquest to maintain “can-do” spirit.

    • Wanted to expand Christianity and American exceptionalism to other countries.


American imperialism and expansion

Alfred Thayer Mahan


Spanish american war

Spanish-American War

  • Cuba was Spanish colony.

    • Rebelled in 1868, crushed.

    • 1895, rebelled again, due to crashed economy.

  • Spanish sent 150,000 troops to Cuba, rounded up Cubans, put them in concentration camps.

    • 2 years, 200,000 dead due to disease, starvation.

  • USA not interested in intervention.

  • Spanish destroy American sugar plantations & mills.

    • US business starts pushing gov’t to get involved.


American imperialism and expansion

  • Two yellow journalism newspapers began to push hard for intervention.

    • New York World owned by Joseph Pulitzer.

    • New York Morning Journal owned by William Randolph Hearst.

  • Papers shifted public opinion to intervention.

  • Promoted jingoism-national pride and desire for aggressive foreign policy.

  • USA was ready to get involved in Cuba.

  • President McKinley sends battleship Maine to Havana, Cuba to protect US citizens and property.


  • American imperialism and expansion

    William Randolph Hearst

    Joseph Pulitzer


    America s entry

    America’s Entry

    • Series of events led USA to war.

      • de Lome letter-US papers publish letter stolen from Spanish ambassador calling McKinley weak.

        • Increased anti-Spanish feeling.

      • 2/15/1898-Maine explodes in Havana harbor, killing 250 sailors.

        • Spanish blamed.

      • Philippines rebelling against Spanish rule.

        • Perfect place for USA naval base.

      • McKinley sends list of demands to Spain, including Cuban independence.

        • Spain accepts all but independence.


    American imperialism and expansion

    de Lome


    American imperialism and expansion

    • April 1898-USA recognizes Cuban independence, declares war or Spain.

      • Start of Spanish-American War.

    • War starts in Philippines w/ US Navy sinking Spanish fleet.

    • US Navy traps Spain’s Atlantic fleet in Santiago harbor.

    • US troops land in Cuba, fight Spanish.

      • Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders.

    • Spanish forces quickly defeated.


    American imperialism and expansion

    • December 1898, Treaty of Paris signed.

      • Spain grants Cuba independence.

      • USA pays Spain $20 million, gets Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam.

    • 2,500 US dead, only 400 in battle.

      • Others dead from bad food, disease.

    • “It was a splendid little war”.

    • USA now seen as major player in world politics.


    Post spanish american war

    Post Spanish-American War

    • Filipinos expected independence; USA did not grant.

      • War b/t USA and Philippines 1899-1902.

        • 4,000 USA killed, 16,000 Filipino killed.

      • Philippines granted independence in 1946.

    • USA governed Cuba for 3 yrs, then granted independence.

      • Forced Cuban constitution to include Platt Amendment.

        • Allowed US to have naval bases, Cuba could not form foreign alliances.


    American imperialism and expansion

    • USA ruled Puerto Rico.

      • Military gov’t until 1900, then civil gov’t.

      • 1917-Puerto Ricans granted US citizenship; could elect local legislatures.

        • US still chose governor.


    Other pacific gains

    Other Pacific Gains

    • Hawaii.

      • 1891, Liliuokalani crowned Queen of Hawaii.

        • Tried to push American business out of Hawaii.

      • 1893, Sanford Dole & USMC pushed her out, requested annexation by USA.

      • 1898-Hawaii annexed as American territory.

    • Samoa.

      • Treaty-USA protects Samoa, USA can use Pago Pago harbor.

      • Germany, England want Samoa; treaty leads to 3-way protectorate, 1889.

      • 1899, England pulls out, USA gets half of Samoa.


    American imperialism and expansion

    Sanford Dole

    Queen Liliuokalani


    American imperialism and expansion

    • China.

      • Valuable trade market.

      • US established “Open Door Policy” with European nations.

        • All nations could trade with China.

      • Chinese not happy with westerners in China.

        • Society of Harmonious Fists, or Boxers rebelled, tried to push west out.

        • Failed.


    Panama canal

    Panama Canal

    • Panama was a Columbian colony.

    • French company started construction on a canal, but abandoned it after 10 yrs.

      • Mismanagement, yellow fever.

    • 1902, USA bought French rights to canal.

      • Columbia would not let USA in to build canal.

    • Panamanians rebelled against Columbia with American support & protection.

    • Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty ended rebellion.

      • Panama independent, USA gets Panama Canal Zone permanently, gives Panama $10 million.


    American imperialism and expansion

    • Construction began 1904, lasted 10 years.

    • Sprayed, used medicine to eradicate malaria, yellow fever.

    • Canal opened 1914.


    Roosevelt s foreign policy

    Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy

    • “Speak softly and carry a big stick” (US Navy).

    • Roosevelt Corollary.

      • Issued 1904-05, addition to Monroe Doctrine.

      • USA will act to protect itself and its’ interests.

      • USA will act as an international police power.

    • Using Corollary, TR got involved in Latin America several times.

      • Did not make Latin America happy with USA.


    Taft and wilson s foreign policy

    Taft and Wilson’s Foreign Policy

    • Taft practiced dollar diplomacy.

      • Maintain peace, friendship in Latin America, Asia by investing in foreign economies.

      • Not very successful; Russia & Japan blocked USA in Asia, Latin America did not like USA involvement.

    • Wilson got involved in Mexico.

      • Supported Venustiano Carranza against Victoriano Huerta in civil war.

      • Pancho Villa opposed Wilson/Carranza.

        • Attacked Americans in Mexico, raided USA border towns.

    • Carranza won, but hurt relations b/t USA & Mexico.


    American imperialism and expansion

    Victoriano Huerta

    Venustiano Carranza


    Imperialism anti imperialism

    Imperialism & Anti-Imperialism

    • Majority of USA supported imperialism.

      • Wanted more markets for goods.

      • Supported American exceptionalism.

        • Like “frontier” and “pioneer” spirit.

    • 1907-TR sent Great White Fleet on world tour to demonstrate USA military power.


    American imperialism and expansion

    • Opponents to imperialism had a few arguments.

      • Not right to deny rights and freedoms to people we colonize.

      • Imperialism is racist against people of color.

      • Southerners did not want more minorities in USA.

      • Too expensive to take over and support colonies.

      • Colonial goods would compete against American goods & hurt economy.


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