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ALL HAZARD APPROACH Raising the Overall Level of Preparedness. WMD. Level of Preparedness. Hurricane. Fire. Mass Casualty. Infrastructure. Frequency of Type of Incident . Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5 Management of Domestic Incidents.

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All hazard approach raising the overall level of preparedness
ALL HAZARD APPROACHRaising the Overall Level of Preparedness


Level of Preparedness



Mass Casualty


Frequency of Type of Incident

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Homeland security presidential directive 5 management of domestic incidents
Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5Management of Domestic Incidents

“To prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies, the United States Government shall establish a single, comprehensive approach to domestic incident management. The objective of the United States Government is to ensure that all levels of government across the Nation have the capability to work efficiently and effectively together, using a national approach to domestic incident management. In these efforts, with regard to domestic incidents, the United States Government treats crisis management and consequence management as a single, integrated function, rather than as two separate functions. “

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Homeland security presidential directive 5 management of domestic incidents1
Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5Management of Domestic Incidents

“The Secretary shall develop, submit for review to the Homeland Security Council, and administer a National Incident Management System (NIMS). This system will provide a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, and local governments to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity. To provide for interoperability and compatibility among Federal, State, and local capabilities, the NIMS will include a core set of concepts, principles, terminology, and technologies covering the incident command system; multi-agency coordination systems; unified command; training; identification and management of resources (including systems for classifying types of resources); qualifications and certification; and the collection, tracking, and reporting of incident information and incident resources.”

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What is ims
What is IMS?

  • Boilerplate - rules of the game

  • A toolbox - “Use what you need!”

  • Common terms

  • Bottom up decision making

  • Effective resource allocation

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Who does ims apply to first responders

  • Typically considered Fire, Police, Paramedic, Emergency Medicine, Public Health

  • New concepts include convergent response

  • Generally consists of first organized response

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Actions of civilian responders
Actions of civilian responders

  • Stumble into the mayhem

  • Hopefully recognize the problem

  • Apply limited resources

  • Scream for help

  • Locals act as “speed bumps.” (J. Denney, LAFD)

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Convergent players
Convergent Players

  • Utility companies

  • Postal and express delivery services

  • Meter readers and inspectors

  • Transit – Buses and taxis

  • Public works crews

  • Private security and volunteer watch groups

  • Real estate agents

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Incident management systems
Incident Management Systems

  • Urban Fire IMS

  • Wildland Fire IMS

  • Emer. Medical IMS

  • Law Enforcement IMS

  • Public Works IMS

  • Hospital Emer. IMS

  • National Interagency Incident Mgmt. Sys.

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Basic principles
Basic principles

  • Function driven

  • Span of control< 5

  • Inter-agency model

  • Effective resource allocation

  • Information sharing & group decision making

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The cnn factor
The CNN factor

The big dog will eat; you can feed him, or he’ll go through your garbage!

“Embedded Reporter”

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Ims dod integration
IMS/DoD Integration

  • Unified command – both parties share the sandbox

  • DoD integration at the section level (operations, logistics, planning)

  • DoD units team with strike teams, task forces, or units (ex: CBIRF with Haz Mat)

  • Any combinations of the above

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Presidential strategy
Presidential Strategy

  • HLS – build and oversee national system for incident management

  • State/local adoption requirement for Federal funding

  • Essential Requirements:

    • Standard incident management system

    • Interagency planning

    • Wireless communication interoperability

    • Local threat assessment and notification

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The big four revisited
The Big Four Revisited

1.) Joint operations – IMS/C3I integration; national ICS all-hazard overhead teams

2.) Common Operational Picture – Coordination with Northern Command; Access 250

3.) Planning and sustainability – DoD planning model integrated into IMS; national cache system with national contracting model

4.) Training – Required integrated/coordinated with common exercise objectives

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Information operations io
Information Operations (IO)

  • Most agencies are clueless!

  • What does the community have to know?

  • Our infrastructure is a “house of cards.”

  • Websites are “wide open”

  • We need standards, guidance, and training.

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Wtc communications
WTC Communications

  • Very complex incident

  • Command destroyed

  • Mass officer fatalities

  • Confused situational awareness

  • Com incompatibility in every U.S. region

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D c police experience on sept 11
D.C. Police Experience on Sept. 11

  • OPM closed federal offices but never notified Metro (D.C.) Police

  • Metro Police got alerts from CNN

  • Local officials were out of position and could not move due to traffic

  • All comm was overloaded or failed

  • The 50 year old EBS system was never used

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The new threat warning system
The New Threat Warning System

  • National level threat advisory system

  • Warnings are not threat and location specific

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Threat warning system
Threat Warning System

  • Purpose

    • To standardize knowledge and response to various threat levels

    • To allow various communities and organizations to have a “common operational picture” of the situation

  • Replaces ad-hoc alert levels and status

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Threat warning system1
Threat Warning System

  • Low Condition (green)

    • Low Risk of Attack

    • Actions include

      • General training and review of plans

      • Maintenance of response capability

      • Practice Institutional Response Procedures

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Threat warning system2
Threat Warning System

  • Guarded Condition (Blue)

    • Possibility of generalized terrorist attack

      • No specific threat

      • No specific target

    • Actions include

      • Check communications with emergency resources

      • Review and update emergency procedures

      • Provide public with information to assist in their preparedness

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Threat warning system3
Threat Warning System

  • Elevated Condition (Yellow)

    • Significant risk of terrorist attack

      • No specific targets but possible specified threat

    • Actions include

      • Increase surveillance of critical locations

      • Coordinate emergency plans as appropriate with nearby jurisdictions

      • Assess whether specific threat requires modification of plans

      • Implement, as appropriate, contingency and emergency operations plans

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Threat warning system4
Threat Warning System

  • High Condition (Orange)

    • High risk of terrorist attacks

      • Specific Threats

      • Specific Targets

    • Actions include

      • Coordinate necessary security efforts at all levels of government

      • Take additional precautions at high vulnerability, high risk venues

      • Prepare to execute contingency emergency procedures

      • Restrict access, as needed, to threatened facilities

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Threat warning system5
Threat Warning System

  • Severe Condition (Red)

    • Severe Risk of Terrorist Attack

      • Credible, specific evidence

      • High reliability of data

      • Corroboration of information

    • Actions include

      • Increasing staff and personnel to emergency levels

      • Assigning and deploying emergency response personnel and deploying teams and equipment

      • Monitoring, redirecting or constraining transportation

      • Closing public and government facilities

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After the anthrax scares
After The Anthrax Scares

  • The FBI said, “Quit calling us.”

  • The fire guys said, “Quit calling us.”

  • The Police picked up the slack.

  • No training

  • No protocols

  • No equipment

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Communication threat types


  • Blast/Burn

  • Mass Casualty

  • Infrastructure

    Almost all incidents are combinations of two or more of the above

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Communication priorities

  • LIFE



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Communication other issues

  • Classification and security

  • Incompatible radios and commo gear

  • Differences in methodology and CONOPS

  • Who’s in charge and does what?

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Anthrax lessons decision making without data
Anthrax LessonsDecision Making without Data

  • Need to make decisions rapidly in the absence of data

  • Access to subject matter experts was limited

  • No “textbook” experience to guide response

  • Understanding of “risk” evolved as outbreak unfolded

  • Need coherent, rapid process for addressing scientific issues in midst of crisis

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Northern command
Northern Command

  • New command since September 11

  • Responsible for the CONUS

  • Assets loaned from other DoD commands

  • Integrates with local responders

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Integration coordinating with other agencies
Integration – Coordinating with Other Agencies

  • Multiple emergency operations centers (EOC)

  • When do you set up a local EOC?

  • Beware of multiple command posts!

  • Mobile communications units are not always compatible

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National caches
National Caches

  • Regional

  • Centralized ordering and Control System

  • Incorporates push and pull logistics strategy

  • Applicable for counter terrorism and other response caches

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Pharmaceutical supplies
Pharmaceutical Supplies

  • Presently based on JIT (just-in-time) inventory practices

  • Most hospitals and EMS services have only a two day supply

  • DHHS/DHS presently working on national pharmaceutical cache system

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Quote of the briefing
Quote of the Briefing

“Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.”

Arthur C. Clark

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Responses technology

  • NO R&D dollars in civilian first response community

  • Must leverage existing resources

  • Difference between system and technology

  • Recognize difference in missions and requirements

    • Electronic Warfare

    • Reliability

  • Needs MUST drive technology, not other way around

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HLS C2 ACTD Vision

To define, refine and transition technologies and concepts of operations that significantly increase DoD Homeland Security responsiveness in consequence management, crisis response, deterrence and intelligence coordination.

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Recommended focus
Recommended Focus

  • Crisis response… Request for assistance – Strategic, Operational, and Tactical

  • Consequence management… Request for support -Strategic, Operational, and Tactical

  • Training… Embedded self- training simulation package

  • Common Relevant Operational Picture development

    • Land, Maritime, Air, MACA domains

    • Web-based

    • Geo-spatially referenced

    • Multi-level security

    • Automated Response Data Processing

  • Assured redundant conductivity, voice, data, collaboration

    • Voice to text

    • Text to voice

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  • Communications interrupted

  • DoD insight was very limited

  • Limited Intelligence sharing

  • Slow Command, Control, and Coordination between DoD and Civil authorities

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Lessons learned
Lessons Learned

  • Interoperability

    • Continued work is needed to provide data and application integration for time-sensitive situational awareness, command, control, and coordination

  • Situational Awareness

    • Better methods to extract and disseminate sensor data for visualization and alerting

    • Improve and automate the responder’s ability to recognize and navigate available IT services

  • Assured Connectivity

    • Quicker, easier configuration of communications equipment

    • Rapid deployment of wideband communications

  • Information Assurance and Security

    • Improve protection of critical command, control and coordination links between all civil and federal responders

From April 2002, Crisis Response Demonstration

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  • Communications

    • Assurance

    • Reliable

    • Bandwidth enhancement

    • QoS

    • Interoperability

  • Network tools

    • Privacy

    • Security

  • Visualization tools

  • Collaboration tools

  • Planning and management applications

  • Modeling tools

  • Reporting tools

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  • Threats are NOT magic!

  • Neither is the technology to combat them!

  • The user is the final say and expert, not the marketer or technology developer

  • No technology is a solution unto itself; they all require doctrine: The two together must be assessed and are a SYSTEM!

  • Consider the mission as a system, not in isolation

  • Use minimum technology necessary to get job done- we are not here to play with toys!

  • Technology must be driven by needs, never drive them

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Most important


    • NOTHING replaces well trained and capable personnel

    • Every technology must have a doctrine for use along with it, otherwise it is useless, and can cost lives

    • Doctrine/need must drive technology, not be driven by it

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