Subcategories 2 other subcategories of nouns
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Subcategories 2: Other Subcategories of Nouns . Lec . 5. Other Subcategories of Nouns . In addition to pronouns & reflexive pronouns (anaphors), there are other subcategories of nouns: proper nouns, animate nouns, mass nouns, & count. nouns. 1. Proper Nouns .

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Other subcategories of nouns
Other Subcategories of Nouns

  • In addition to pronouns & reflexive pronouns (anaphors), there are other subcategories of nouns: proper nouns, animate nouns, mass nouns, & count. nouns


1 proper nouns
1. Proper Nouns

Names such Andrew are called proper nouns

  • Andrew loves bagpipes

  • *The Andrew loves bagpipes

  • Big Andrew loves bagpipes

  • What is the distribution of proper nouns relative to determiners & adjectives?

  • How is the distribution of proper names different form that of pronouns?


The value prop
the value +prop

  • Andrew

    CATEGORY

    N

    SUBCAT + prop

    Challenge!

    The Cranies are coming over tonight for dinner

    We Harleys love a good family challenge


2 animate nouns
2. Animate Nouns

  • We should consider another subcategory: that of animate nouns.

  • animate nouns refer to that of living things

  • There is no obvious morphological mark of animate nouns in English, but we can find syntactic evidence for this group.


Exercise
Exercise

  • Give each sentence a * if it is bad, a ? If it is OK, but a bit weird, & leave it blank if it is OK.

  • …………….Peter sent an email to Dave.

  • …………….Peter sent Dave an email.

  • ……………. Peter sent a letter to Detroit.

  • ……………. Peter sent Detroit a letter.

  • …………….Susan bought some flowers for her mother.

  • …………….Susan bought her mother some flowers.

  • …………….Susan bought some flowers for her birthday.

  • …………….Susan bought her birthday some flowers.


Discussion
Discussion

Prepositional Ditransitives

Dative Constructions

Peter sent Dave an email.

? Peter sent Detroit a letter.

Susan bought her mother some flowers.

? Susan bought her birthday some flowers.

  • Peter sent an email to Dave.

  • Peter sent a letter to Detroit.

  • Susan bought some flowers for her mother.

  • Susan bought some flowers for her birthday.


Notation
Notation

  • Andrew

    CATEGORY N

    SUBCAT + prop

    + animate


Notation1
Notation

  • Girl

    CATEGORY N

    SUBCAT + animate

    AGR – φNUM sg


Notation2
Notation

  • Him

    CATEGORY

    N

    SUBCAT + D

    + animate

    CASE Acc

    AGR – φ GEND masc

    NUM sg

    PERS 3


Comment
Comment

  • We can see the new crucial bit among the three notations is the SUBCAT value of + animate


3 common nouns mass vs count
3. Common Nouns: mass vs. count

  • Nouns that are not pronouns or proper names are known as common nouns.


Exercise1
Exercise

  • For each of the words below indicate whether it can occur with the quantifier muchor the quantifier many


Comment1
Comment

  • There is a clear-cut distinction between nouns that can occur with the quantifier much and those that can occur with many

  • The issue is not plurality


Examples
Examples

  • * I ate apple

  • I ate apples

  • I ate the apple

  • I ate sugar

  • I ate the sugar

  • He is filled with sincerity

  • I doubt his sincerity

  • The sincerity of the President’s claims is in dispute


Comment2
Comment

  • In some ways, mass nouns are like plural nouns (with/ without a determiner). BUT,

  • singular count nouns always require a determiner


Examples1
Examples

  • *Cat ate the spider

  • The cat ate the spider

  • Cats ate the spider

  • The cats ate the spider


Note

  • Every cat ate the tuna

  • *Every water drowned the man

  • Several cats ate the tuna

  • *several waters drowned the man

  • Several & everycannot appear with mass nouns



Mass count nouns
Mass & Count nouns

  • Consider these examples:

  • That soda is filled with sugar. mass

  • I’d like two sugars in my coffee please. count

  • Fire is dangerous. mass

  • He had a fire in his fireplace. count


Notation3
Notation

  • We will mark nouns with the feature +

  • Count nouns + Count

  • Count nouns + Count / +pl

  • Mass nouns – Count

    Mass/ Pl Feature Co-occurrence Restriction

    * - count

    + pl


Notation4
Notation

  • Girl

    CATEGORY

    N

    SUBCAT + animate

    + count

    AGR – φ

    NUM sg


Notation5
Notation

  • Boys

    CATEGORY

    N

    SUBCAT + animate

    + count

    AGR – φ

    NUM pl


Notation6
Notation

  • Cats

    CATEGORY

    N

    SUBCAT +animate

    + count

    AGR – φ

    NUM pl


The lake didn t have much water in it
The lake didn’t have much water in it

  • Water

    CATEGORY

    N

    SUBCAT - animate

    - count


I drank the water
I drank the water

  • Water

    CATEGORY

    N

    SUBCAT - animate

    + count

    AGR – φ

    NUM sg


Exercise2
Exercise

  • Flower

    CATEGORY

    N

    SUBCAT

    AGR – φ

    NUM


Exercise3
Exercise

  • Jane

    CATEGORY

    N

    SUBCAT

    AGR – φ

    NUM



Summary
Summary

  • So far, we have identified the following different subcategories of nouns:

  • Proper nouns (+ prop)

  • Animate nouns ( +animate )

  • Count nouns (+ count), which can be +plural

  • Mass nouns (- count)


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