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Subcategories 2: Other Subcategories of Nouns . Lec . 5. Other Subcategories of Nouns . In addition to pronouns & reflexive pronouns (anaphors), there are other subcategories of nouns: proper nouns, animate nouns, mass nouns, & count. nouns. 1. Proper Nouns .

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other subcategories of nouns
Other Subcategories of Nouns
  • In addition to pronouns & reflexive pronouns (anaphors), there are other subcategories of nouns: proper nouns, animate nouns, mass nouns, & count. nouns
1 proper nouns
1. Proper Nouns

Names such Andrew are called proper nouns

  • Andrew loves bagpipes
  • *The Andrew loves bagpipes
  • Big Andrew loves bagpipes
  • What is the distribution of proper nouns relative to determiners & adjectives?
  • How is the distribution of proper names different form that of pronouns?
the value prop
the value +prop
  • Andrew

CATEGORY

N

SUBCAT + prop

Challenge!

The Cranies are coming over tonight for dinner

We Harleys love a good family challenge

2 animate nouns
2. Animate Nouns
  • We should consider another subcategory: that of animate nouns.
  • animate nouns refer to that of living things
  • There is no obvious morphological mark of animate nouns in English, but we can find syntactic evidence for this group.
exercise
Exercise
  • Give each sentence a * if it is bad, a ? If it is OK, but a bit weird, & leave it blank if it is OK.
  • …………….Peter sent an email to Dave.
  • …………….Peter sent Dave an email.
  • ……………. Peter sent a letter to Detroit.
  • ……………. Peter sent Detroit a letter.
  • …………….Susan bought some flowers for her mother.
  • …………….Susan bought her mother some flowers.
  • …………….Susan bought some flowers for her birthday.
  • …………….Susan bought her birthday some flowers.
discussion
Discussion

Prepositional Ditransitives

Dative Constructions

Peter sent Dave an email.

? Peter sent Detroit a letter.

Susan bought her mother some flowers.

? Susan bought her birthday some flowers.

  • Peter sent an email to Dave.
  • Peter sent a letter to Detroit.
  • Susan bought some flowers for her mother.
  • Susan bought some flowers for her birthday.
notation
Notation
  • Andrew

CATEGORY N

SUBCAT + prop

+ animate

notation1
Notation
  • Girl

CATEGORY N

SUBCAT + animate

AGR – φNUM sg

notation2
Notation
  • Him

CATEGORY

N

SUBCAT + D

+ animate

CASE Acc

AGR – φ GEND masc

NUM sg

PERS 3

comment
Comment
  • We can see the new crucial bit among the three notations is the SUBCAT value of + animate
3 common nouns mass vs count
3. Common Nouns: mass vs. count
  • Nouns that are not pronouns or proper names are known as common nouns.
exercise1
Exercise
  • For each of the words below indicate whether it can occur with the quantifier muchor the quantifier many
comment1
Comment
  • There is a clear-cut distinction between nouns that can occur with the quantifier much and those that can occur with many
  • The issue is not plurality
examples
Examples
  • * I ate apple
  • I ate apples
  • I ate the apple
  • I ate sugar
  • I ate the sugar
  • He is filled with sincerity
  • I doubt his sincerity
  • The sincerity of the President’s claims is in dispute
comment2
Comment
  • In some ways, mass nouns are like plural nouns (with/ without a determiner). BUT,
  • singular count nouns always require a determiner
examples1
Examples
  • *Cat ate the spider
  • The cat ate the spider
  • Cats ate the spider
  • The cats ate the spider
slide18
Note
  • Every cat ate the tuna
  • *Every water drowned the man
  • Several cats ate the tuna
  • *several waters drowned the man
  • Several & everycannot appear with mass nouns
mass count nouns
Mass & Count nouns
  • Consider these examples:
  • That soda is filled with sugar. mass
  • I’d like two sugars in my coffee please. count
  • Fire is dangerous. mass
  • He had a fire in his fireplace. count
notation3
Notation
  • We will mark nouns with the feature +
  • Count nouns + Count
  • Count nouns + Count / +pl
  • Mass nouns – Count

Mass/ Pl Feature Co-occurrence Restriction

* - count

+ pl

notation4
Notation
  • Girl

CATEGORY

N

SUBCAT + animate

+ count

AGR – φ

NUM sg

notation5
Notation
  • Boys

CATEGORY

N

SUBCAT + animate

+ count

AGR – φ

NUM pl

notation6
Notation
  • Cats

CATEGORY

N

SUBCAT +animate

+ count

AGR – φ

NUM pl

the lake didn t have much water in it
The lake didn’t have much water in it
  • Water

CATEGORY

N

SUBCAT - animate

- count

i drank the water
I drank the water
  • Water

CATEGORY

N

SUBCAT - animate

+ count

AGR – φ

NUM sg

exercise2
Exercise
  • Flower

CATEGORY

N

SUBCAT

AGR – φ

NUM

exercise3
Exercise
  • Jane

CATEGORY

N

SUBCAT

AGR – φ

NUM

summary
Summary
  • So far, we have identified the following different subcategories of nouns:
  • Proper nouns (+ prop)
  • Animate nouns ( +animate )
  • Count nouns (+ count), which can be +plural
  • Mass nouns (- count)
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