Jfk and flexible response
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JFK AND FLEXIBLE RESPONSE. JFK is elected president of the U.S. in 1960. Flexible Response=JFK’s new military policy. Increased spending on nonnuclear forces such as troops, ships, and artillery. Created the Special Forces branch of the Green Berets.

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JFK AND FLEXIBLE RESPONSE

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Jfk and flexible response

JFK AND FLEXIBLE RESPONSE

  • JFK is elected president of the U.S. in 1960.

  • Flexible Response=JFK’s new military policy.

  • Increased spending on nonnuclear forces such as troops, ships, and artillery.

  • Created the Special Forces branch of the Green Berets.

  • Tripled the number of nuclear bombs in the U.S. arsenal.


Why flexible response

Why Flexible Response

  • JFK did not like the idea of using Brinkmanship (using the threat of massive nuclear retaliation) to discourage Soviet aggression.

  • The military changes allowed the U.S. to fight a conventional type of war if needed AND maintain a balance of nuclear power with the Soviet Union.


Cuba and fidel castro

CUBA and Fidel Castro

  • Fidel Castro leads a successful revolution in Cuba and takes over on 1/3/1959.

  • Castro declares himself and Cuba communist and allies himself with the Soviet Union.

  • Cuba lies 90 miles south of Florida. Now there is a communist threat in the back yard of the U. S.


Cuba bay of pigs invasion

CUBA: BAY OF PIGS INVASION

  • JFK and the CIA plan an invasion of Cuba to overthrow Castro and install a pro-American regime.

  • The CIA trains thousands of Cuban exiles fro the invasion.

  • The UN votes against using force on Castro so the U.S. plans a secret invasion codenamed “The Bay of Pigs.”


The bay of pigs

THE BAY OF PIGS

  • The Invasion Plan:

  • The CIA will bomb the island in 3 separate air strikes the 48 hours prior to the invasion in order to secure air superiority.

    The 2nd and 3rd air strikes are canceled by JFK. The 1st air strike failed to knock out the Cuban air force.

    B) On April 17, 1961 about 1500 Cuban exile troops would land at Trinidad and storm the island.

    The invasions landing site was changed by JFK at the last minute from Trinidad to the Bay of Pigs.


The bay of pigs1

THE BAY OF PIGS

  • The Cuban exile forces hit the beach at the Bay of Pigs and gets slaughtered by a Cuban military force 25,000 strong.

  • The Cuban troops were backed with Soviet tanks, planes and guns.

  • Hundreds of captured Cuban exiles were immediately executed by Castro.

  • The remaining 1,209 captured Cuban exiles were sentenced to thirty years in prison. After 20 months of negotiation with the United States, Cuba released the exiles in exchange for $53 million in food and medicine.

  • The U.S. is embarrassed! We are defeated by the tiny Cuban military.


The cuban missile crisis

THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

  • On October 14, 1962 the U.S. spy planes discovered loaded Soviet missiles in Cuba pointed at the U.S.

  • President Kennedy immediately made it clear that nuclear weapons in Cuba was unacceptable (90 miles off the Florida coast).


Cuban missile crisis

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

  • Nuclear weapons in Cuba could reach anywhere in the U.S. in less than 20 minutes.

  • President Kennedy makes it clear that any missile attack from Cuba would trigger an all out nuclear attack on the Soviet Union.


Cuban missile crisis1

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

  • On October 22 the U.S. discovered that the Soviets were shipping more nuclear weapons by boat to Cuba.

  • The U.S. navy created a blockade on the Atlantic Ocean 500 miles off the coast of Cuba to keep the Soviet ships from reaching the island.


Cuban missile crisis2

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

  • The U.S. Air Force was called in to harass the Soviet ships by air.

  • 100,000 U.S. troops were stationed in Florida ready to invade Cuba if necessary.

  • The Soviet ships stopped at the U.S. naval blockade on October 26th.

  • Khrushchev threatened to use nuclear weapons if the U.S. did not stand down. JFK threatened to use nukes if the Soviets attempted to advance past the blockade.

  • The Soviets back down on October 28th and agree to pull all nuclear bombs and missiles out of Cuba.


Cuban missile crisis3

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

  • Government documents show that the U.S. and the Soviet Union were less than 5 minutes away from launching a nuclear attack.

  • Brinkmanship worked.

  • The U.S. pledged not to invade Cuba and to remove nuclear missiles from Turkey.


Cuban missile crisis4

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS


The berlin wall

THE BERLIN WALL

  • Since 1950 almost 3 million East Germans had fled into West Berlin because it was free from Communist rule.

  • To stop the embarrassment Khrushchev built a concrete wall separating East and West Berlin on 8/13/1961.

  • During the 28 years the wall was in existence, approximately 5,000 succeeded in fleeing.

  • Almost 200 died attempting to escape.


The berlin wall1

THE BERLIN WALL

  • The Berlin Wall was made of concrete and barb wire fence 10-15 feet high.

  • The wall was 110 miles long.

  • Floodlights, electric fences, guard dogs and machine guns discouraged most people from attempting to flee into West Berlin.

  • The Wall became an ugly symbol of Communist oppression.


Hot line

HOT LINE

  • Showdowns between Kennedy and Khrushchev had almost resulted in several nuclear wars so the two decided they need to be able to communicate directly and immediately with each other.

  • The White House and the Kremlin installed a direct phone line in 1963 for the two leaders to talk instantaneously in times of a crisis.


Limited test ban treaty

LIMITED TEST BAN TREATY

  • Also in 1963 the Soviet Union and the U.S agreed to ban nuclear testing in the atmosphere.

  • The Limited Test Ban Treaty was a big first step to creating future treaties of disarmament.


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