Why can t a computer be more like a brain
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Why Can't A Computer Be More Like A Brain? PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Why Can't A Computer Be More Like A Brain?. Outline. Introduction Turning Test HTM A. Theory B. Applications & Limits Conclusion. Introduction. Brain allows: conversation, cat or dog, play catch Robots & Computers: NONE Wrong start despite 50 years of research?

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Why Can't A Computer Be More Like A Brain?

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Why can t a computer be more like a brain

Why Can't A Computer Be More Like A Brain?


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction

  • Turning Test

  • HTM

    • A. Theory

    • B. Applications & Limits

    • Conclusion


Introduction

Introduction

  • Brain allows: conversation, cat or dog, play catch

  • Robots & Computers: NONE

  • Wrong start despite 50 years of research?

  • Neglect of human brain in research

  • Neural network programming techniques


Turning test

Turning Test

  • It asked if a computer hidden away, could converse and be indistinguishable from a human

  • Today, the answer is NO, Behavioral frame?

  • Understand then replicate

  • Jeff Hawkins: Palm Computing, Hand Spring, Numenta

  • HTM (Hierarchical Temporal Memory) theory


Htm theory

HTM: Theory

Cerebral Cortex


Htm theory1

HTM: Theory

  • Neocortex & How it works

  • Motor control, language, music, vision, different jobs

  • Uniform structure, suggest common algorithm code

  • General purpose learning machine

  • 6 sheets, 30 billion neurons

  • Learning depends on size, senses, experiences


Htm theory2

HTM: Theory


Htm theory3

HTM: Theory

  • Different sheets connected by bundles of nerve fibers

  • A map reveals a hierarchical design

  • Input directly to regions, feed others

  • Info also flows down the hierarchy

  • Low level nodes, simple input, high more complex

  • HTM similarly built on hierarchy of nodes


Htm theory4

HTM: Theory

  • Memory not stored in a single location

  • Example: Cat

  • Ears, fur, eyes: low level nodes

  • Head, torso: high level nodes

  • Takes time, but can learn dog with less memory

  • Reuse knowledge, unlike AI and neural networks


Htm theory5

HTM: Theory

  • Time is the teacher

  • Patterns that occur together in generally have common cause

  • Hear sequence of notes, recognize melody

  • Memory: hierarchical, dynamic, memory systems

  • Not computer memory or single instance

  • Train HTM: Sensory input through time


Htm theory6

HTM: Theory

  • Machine learning difference?

  • Hybrid with a twist

  • Hierarchy: HHMM (Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models)

  • Spatial variation problem

  • Similarity means same conclusion


Htm theory7

HTM: Theory

  • Biological model: Accurate, neuroanatomy and physiology for direction

  • HTMs work: Can identify dogs in various forms

  • Bayesian network

  • Numenta: Three components

  • 1) Run-time engine: C++ routines, create, train, run

  • From small laptops to multi-core PC

  • Runs on Linux, can use Mac


Htm theory8

HTM: Theory

  • Automatically handles the message processing back and forth in nodes

  • 2) Tools: Python scripting language, train and test

  • Sufficient, but could modify/enhance: visualization

  • 3) Plug-in API and associated source code

  • Create new kinds of nodes

  • Two kinds: Basic learning (appears anywhere in net)

  • Interface node (out of the net to sensors input or effectors that output).


Htm applications limits

HTM: Applications & Limits

  • What can you do with Numenta?

  • Car manufacturers: Spatial inference, data from camera/laser

  • Social networks, machine net, oil exploration

  • Work best when hierarchical structure in data (e.g.?)

  • What sensory data to train with?

  • Present them in time-varying form


Htm applications limits1

HTM: Applications & Limits

  • Applications that cannot be solved today:

  • Long memory sequences or specific timing

  • Example: Spoken Language, music, robotics require precise timing

  • Limitation because of tools & algorithms, not platform

  • Takes time to learn, never learned to program

  • Not humanlike, not brain, not to pass test


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Difference between brain and computer

  • Wrong approach, Turning test, Neocortex

  • HTM: Hierarchy, nodes, reuse data, learns on its own

  • Numenta platform: Run-time engine, Tools, Plug-in API

  • Applications: Spatial inference, networks

  • Limits: Long sequence, specific timing


Question time

Question Time

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