The seeds of unrest
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The Seeds of Unrest. Governing New Territories. Treaty of Paris of 1763 – France gave up its North American empire Britain now control land from Appalachian Mtns. to Mississippi River Farmers and land speculators moved to new region

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The Seeds of Unrest

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The Seeds of Unrest

Governing New Territories

  • Treaty of Paris of 1763 – France gave up its North American empire

  • Britain now control land from Appalachian Mtns. to Mississippi River

  • Farmers and land speculators moved to new region

  • Everyone seemed to be ignoring the American Indian claim to the land

American Indian Resistance

  • British limited the amount of ammunition and rumavailable for trade with Indians

    • Naturally this angered many American Indians

    • Considered trade items as fair payment for land

  • Neolin (American Indian), denounced European goods and urged other Indians to drive out the British

  • Pontiac’s Rebellion – in 1763, many Indian tribes took up arms against the British

    • Killed over 2000 troops

    • Rebellion ended when Pontiac could not take Fort Detroit or Fort Pitt (lack of supplies and cold winter)

The Proclamation of 1763

  • Although British held military control in “Frontier”, could not successfully protect all British settlers

  • Proclamation of 1763 barred settlement west of Appalachians

  • Hard to enforce, many colonists land hungry and continued to move west

    [Colonists resented the Proclamation]

Financing the Empire

  • British in major debt after war, put some of the financial burden on the backs of the colonists – creating more resentment

  • Question became how to raise revenue ($$$)


    • Sugar Act of 1764 – import tax on foreign sugar, molasses, and a few other items….

      • ***not first tax on sugar or molasses, but first time it was seriously enforced

      • Colonists could no longer smuggle goods into the colonies

Financing the Empires

  • Sugar Act decreased business for colonial merchantswho profited from smuggling

  • Often refused to cooperate with inspectors of the Royal Navy in shipyards

  • Controversy continued…..

  • In 1765, Parliament slapped another tax….. Stamp Act of 1765

    • Placed a tax on anything printed….

Colonial Protests

  • British officials were unprepared for the colonial resistance

    • Parliament passed act without any direct representation from colonies…

    • “No taxation without representation”

  • May 1765, VA House of Burgesses passed several resolutions condemning the Stamp Act

A Call to Action

  • Colonists signed non-importation agreements

    • Promised not to buy or import British goods

  • Protesters hit the streets, sometimes violently

    • Edenezer MacIntosh led a violent protest destroying the property of a stamp agent

    • Boston Sons of Liberty – artisans, lawyers, merchants, politicians

Repeal of Stamp Act

  • Samuel Adams – elected to Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1765

    • Became a leader in the fight for the colonists

  • October 1765, delegates from 9 colonies gathered in NYC – Stamp Act Congress

    • Pledged obedience to Parliament

    • Voiced objections to Stamp Act – had no right to tax colonists

  • British merchants who were losing business joined in the protests

  • REPEALED in March 1776

Declaratory Act of 1766 – asserted full power and authority of Parliament

The Townsend Acts

  • Charles Townsend, a British finance minister, believed colonists resented the Stamp Act because it was collected in the colonies

  • Townsend believed they would be willing to accept taxes at colonial ports

  • Townsend Acts of 1767

    • Import taxes on tea, lead, glass, dyes

    • British custom officials used writs of assistance to enforce act – meaning they could search anything

Colonial Opposition

  • Powerful opposition from the colonists

  • Crown placed additional soldiers in colonies

  • NY’s assembly imposed the Quartering Act of 1765

    • Refused to provided money to quarter the soldiers

The Boston Massacre

  • On March 5, 1770, an angry crowd gathered outside a customs house

  • Crowed yelled insults, threw snowballs, rocks, and coal at the soldiers

  • Before long, a soldier’s gun went off, 3 colonists lay dead, 2 more die later

Continuing Unrest…

  • 1770, partial repeal of the Townsend Act, Quartering Act expired

  • British kept a small tax on tea

    • King George – “always must be one tax to keep up the right”

  • Repeal quieted general unrest, for a little while

  • 1772, Parliament announced it would pay salaries of governor and judges in Mass.

    • Feared they would now ignore colonial demands

The Tea Act of 1773

  • British East India Company almost bankrupt

  • To save company – Parliament passed Tea Act

    • Excused the company from paying certain taxes and permitted the company to see directly to American agents

  • Most colonists refused to buy Tea

  • Sons of Liberty in Philadelphia and NYC threatened tea importers and boycotted

Boston Tea Party

  • December 16, 1773

    • Governor refused colonist’s demands

    • Later that night, dressed as Indians, a well-organized group of colonists boarded tea ships in Boston Harbor

    • Dumped 342 chests of tea into water

Intolerable Acts of 1774

  • Boston Tea Party infuriated British officials

  • Parliament responded by passing the Coercive Acts – designed to strengthen British control in Mass.

    • Colonists Called these Acts the Intolerable Acts

      • Colonists had to repay for lost tea – Ports closed indefinitely

      • Forbade colonists from holding town meetings

      • Royal officials charged of crimes to be tired in other colonies

      • Local officials had to provide housing and food for British soldiers

  • The Intolerable Acts deepened Colonial hostility toward Britain

  • Along with the Quebec Act, which extended Quebec territory south, angered colonists

  • Move towards colonial unity….

  • Thus begins the Revolutionary War…

First Continental Congress

  • Philadelphia – October 26, 1774

    • Every colony except for GA represented -1st time colonies really acted as one

    • Not a lawmaking body – met to air grievances and consider their options

    • Stay with Britain or declare independence

  • Declaration of Resolves

    • Expressed loyalty to the British crown, stated that colonists had rights as British subjects

    • Colonists had “free and exclusive power of legislation in their several provincial legislatures”

    • Called for a ban on all trade with Britain

    • Agreed to meet again in May 1775

  • King George III saw this as the last straw…….rebellion must be shut down

Lexington and Concord

  • Under orders from King George III – General Thomas Gage decided to seize rebel military supplies in Concord, Mass.

  • April 18, 1775, under night sky, 750 British troops left Boston toward Concord

  • The Patriots (colonists who supported independence) had placed watchmen on the shore of the Charles River

  • As Gage moved in close, Paul Revere ran back yelling “The British are coming!”

  • April 19th, 70 minutemen waited for the arrival of the British

  • British finally arrive – “Lay down your arms rebels, and disperse”

  • Colonists began to flee and then out of nowhere (each accusing the other) a shot was fired – “shot heard round the world”

  • British open fire – 8 colonists dead, 10 wounded

  • British marched on towards the rebels military supplies in Concord

  • As the British headed back to Boston, 100s of minutemen from behind stone walls open fire of the red coats

  • 273 British soldiers dead

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