the seeds of unrest
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The Seeds of Unrest. Governing New Territories. Treaty of Paris of 1763 – France gave up its North American empire Britain now control land from Appalachian Mtns. to Mississippi River Farmers and land speculators moved to new region

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governing new territories
Governing New Territories
  • Treaty of Paris of 1763 – France gave up its North American empire
  • Britain now control land from Appalachian Mtns. to Mississippi River
  • Farmers and land speculators moved to new region
  • Everyone seemed to be ignoring the American Indian claim to the land
american indian resistance
American Indian Resistance
  • British limited the amount of ammunition and rumavailable for trade with Indians
    • Naturally this angered many American Indians
    • Considered trade items as fair payment for land
  • Neolin (American Indian), denounced European goods and urged other Indians to drive out the British
  • Pontiac’s Rebellion – in 1763, many Indian tribes took up arms against the British
    • Killed over 2000 troops
    • Rebellion ended when Pontiac could not take Fort Detroit or Fort Pitt (lack of supplies and cold winter)
the proclamation of 1763
The Proclamation of 1763
  • Although British held military control in “Frontier”, could not successfully protect all British settlers
  • Proclamation of 1763 barred settlement west of Appalachians
  • Hard to enforce, many colonists land hungry and continued to move west

[Colonists resented the Proclamation]

financing the empire
Financing the Empire
  • British in major debt after war, put some of the financial burden on the backs of the colonists – creating more resentment
  • Question became how to raise revenue ($$$)
  • TAXES
    • Sugar Act of 1764 – import tax on foreign sugar, molasses, and a few other items….
      • ***not first tax on sugar or molasses, but first time it was seriously enforced
      • Colonists could no longer smuggle goods into the colonies
financing the empires
Financing the Empires
  • Sugar Act decreased business for colonial merchantswho profited from smuggling
  • Often refused to cooperate with inspectors of the Royal Navy in shipyards
  • Controversy continued…..
  • In 1765, Parliament slapped another tax….. Stamp Act of 1765
    • Placed a tax on anything printed….
colonial protests
Colonial Protests
  • British officials were unprepared for the colonial resistance
    • Parliament passed act without any direct representation from colonies…
    • “No taxation without representation”
  • May 1765, VA House of Burgesses passed several resolutions condemning the Stamp Act
a call to action
A Call to Action
  • Colonists signed non-importation agreements
    • Promised not to buy or import British goods
  • Protesters hit the streets, sometimes violently
    • Edenezer MacIntosh led a violent protest destroying the property of a stamp agent
    • Boston Sons of Liberty – artisans, lawyers, merchants, politicians
repeal of stamp act
Repeal of Stamp Act
  • Samuel Adams – elected to Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1765
    • Became a leader in the fight for the colonists
  • October 1765, delegates from 9 colonies gathered in NYC – Stamp Act Congress
    • Pledged obedience to Parliament
    • Voiced objections to Stamp Act – had no right to tax colonists
  • British merchants who were losing business joined in the protests
  • REPEALED in March 1776

Declaratory Act of 1766 – asserted full power and authority of Parliament

the townsend acts
The Townsend Acts
  • Charles Townsend, a British finance minister, believed colonists resented the Stamp Act because it was collected in the colonies
  • Townsend believed they would be willing to accept taxes at colonial ports
  • Townsend Acts of 1767
    • Import taxes on tea, lead, glass, dyes
    • British custom officials used writs of assistance to enforce act – meaning they could search anything
colonial opposition
Colonial Opposition
  • Powerful opposition from the colonists
  • Crown placed additional soldiers in colonies
  • NY’s assembly imposed the Quartering Act of 1765
    • Refused to provided money to quarter the soldiers
the boston massacre
The Boston Massacre
  • On March 5, 1770, an angry crowd gathered outside a customs house
  • Crowed yelled insults, threw snowballs, rocks, and coal at the soldiers
  • Before long, a soldier’s gun went off, 3 colonists lay dead, 2 more die later
continuing unrest
Continuing Unrest…
  • 1770, partial repeal of the Townsend Act, Quartering Act expired
  • British kept a small tax on tea
    • King George – “always must be one tax to keep up the right”
  • Repeal quieted general unrest, for a little while
  • 1772, Parliament announced it would pay salaries of governor and judges in Mass.
    • Feared they would now ignore colonial demands
the tea act of 1773
The Tea Act of 1773
  • British East India Company almost bankrupt
  • To save company – Parliament passed Tea Act
    • Excused the company from paying certain taxes and permitted the company to see directly to American agents
  • Most colonists refused to buy Tea
  • Sons of Liberty in Philadelphia and NYC threatened tea importers and boycotted
boston tea party
Boston Tea Party
  • December 16, 1773
    • Governor refused colonist’s demands
    • Later that night, dressed as Indians, a well-organized group of colonists boarded tea ships in Boston Harbor
    • Dumped 342 chests of tea into water
intolerable acts of 1774
Intolerable Acts of 1774
  • Boston Tea Party infuriated British officials
  • Parliament responded by passing the Coercive Acts – designed to strengthen British control in Mass.
    • Colonists Called these Acts the Intolerable Acts
      • Colonists had to repay for lost tea – Ports closed indefinitely
      • Forbade colonists from holding town meetings
      • Royal officials charged of crimes to be tired in other colonies
      • Local officials had to provide housing and food for British soldiers
slide20

The Intolerable Acts deepened Colonial hostility toward Britain

  • Along with the Quebec Act, which extended Quebec territory south, angered colonists
  • Move towards colonial unity….
  • Thus begins the Revolutionary War…
first continental congress
First Continental Congress
  • Philadelphia – October 26, 1774
    • Every colony except for GA represented -1st time colonies really acted as one
    • Not a lawmaking body – met to air grievances and consider their options
    • Stay with Britain or declare independence
  • Declaration of Resolves
    • Expressed loyalty to the British crown, stated that colonists had rights as British subjects
    • Colonists had “free and exclusive power of legislation in their several provincial legislatures”
    • Called for a ban on all trade with Britain
    • Agreed to meet again in May 1775
  • King George III saw this as the last straw…….rebellion must be shut down
lexington and concord
Lexington and Concord
  • Under orders from King George III – General Thomas Gage decided to seize rebel military supplies in Concord, Mass.
  • April 18, 1775, under night sky, 750 British troops left Boston toward Concord
  • The Patriots (colonists who supported independence) had placed watchmen on the shore of the Charles River
  • As Gage moved in close, Paul Revere ran back yelling “The British are coming!”
slide24
April 19th, 70 minutemen waited for the arrival of the British
  • British finally arrive – “Lay down your arms rebels, and disperse”
  • Colonists began to flee and then out of nowhere (each accusing the other) a shot was fired – “shot heard round the world”
  • British open fire – 8 colonists dead, 10 wounded
  • British marched on towards the rebels military supplies in Concord
  • As the British headed back to Boston, 100s of minutemen from behind stone walls open fire of the red coats
  • 273 British soldiers dead
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