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CURRICULUM HISTORIANS. Karen Hicks EDUC 615 March 2, 2009. We often wonder why a particular method is touted as the “best” in educational practices.

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Curriculum historians

CURRICULUM HISTORIANS

Karen Hicks

EDUC 615

March 2, 2009


  • We often wonder why a particular method is touted as the “best” in educational practices.

  • Where and when did educators or people interested in education begin to push a curriculum or instructional methods as the “best” way for education?

  • To understand where we are today, we need to look at those who came before.


Goals
Goals “best” in educational practices.

  • To learn a bit about educational historians

  • To be able to answer a short quiz about the historians

  • To understand where some of today’s “new” ideas came from


Historians

Charles Eliot “best” in educational practices.

Johann Friedich Herbart

Fredrich Froebel

Herbert Spencer

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi

Thomas Jefferson

Noah Webster

Ben Franklin

William Holmes McGruffey

Benjamin Rush

Horace Mann

Quiz

References

Historians


Charles eliot 1834 1926
Charles Eliot “best” in educational practices. 1834 - 1926

  • President of Harvard for forty years; introduced the “elective system” giving Harvard students a greater role in determining the focus of their own education

  • Harvard Professor of Mathematics and Chemistry in 1858

  • Concerned about the relationship between education and economic growth


  • Enhanced the graduate program and professional schools at Harvard which lead to graduate programs becoming a central part of the American university

  • Chairman of the Committee of Ten on Secondary School Studies (1892) – influenced uniformity in high school curriculums and college entrance requirements and urged secondary schools to establish an elective system of courses for their students

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Johann friedrich herbart 1776 1841
Johann Friedrich Herbart Harvard which lead to graduate programs becoming a central part of the American university1776-1841

  • A German philosopher, psychologist, and educator who laid the foundations of scientific study of education

  • Learning process – new ideas could enter the mind through association with similar ideas already present and by building up sequences of ideas important to the individual



    • Five-step method of teaching instruction – “Five Formal Steps of the Recitation”

      • Preparation = prepare the pupils to be ready for the new lesson

      • Presentation = present the new lesson

      • Association = associate the new lesson with ideas studied earlier

      • Generalization = use examples to illustrate the lesson’s major points

      • Application = test pupils to ensure they had learned the new lesson

  • Emphasized that the proper correlation of curriculum materials would give students an understanding of the world

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  • Fredrich froebel 1782 1852
    Fredrich Froebel Steps of the Recitation” 1782-1852

    • German educationalist who developed the kindergarten system (children’s garden)

    • As a private tutor using his “hands-on learning” approach in his pupils’ garden, Froebel realized that action and direct observations were the best ways to educate.



    Herbert spencer 1820 1903
    Herbert Spencer ‘gifts’ (play materials) and ‘occupations’ (activities)1820-1903

    • English philosopher and father of Social Darwinism

    • Study – 5 areas

      • 1) those activities which directly minister to self-preservation;

      • 2) those activities which, by securing the necessaries of life, indirectly administer to self-preservation;

      • 3) those activities which have for their end the rearing and discipline of offspring;

      • 4) those activities which are involved in the maintenance of proper social and political relations;

      • 5) those miscellaneous activities which fill up the leisure part of life, devoted to the gratification of the tastes and feelings


    • Controversial ideas – remove Latin and Greek as areas of study.

    • The study of science was a necessity

    • Believed that learning should occur through using the senses when a student interacts with the environment; encourage children to explore and discover

    • His ideas about curriculum were widely accepted in the US

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    Johann heinrich pestalozzi 1746 1827
    Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi study. 1746-1827

    • Early school experience emphasized questions and discussions rather than memorization

    • Wrote Leonhard and Gertrude (1783) and How Gertrude Teaches her Children emphasizing his views on social and educational reform



    Thomas jefferson 1743 1826
    Thomas Jefferson study. 1743-1826

    • Saw a direct correlation between literacy, citizenship and successful self-government

    • Proposed a free public system of schools

    • Proposal included three grades for rich and poor students. In these grades, students would be taught reading, writing, and arithmetic.



    Noah webster 1758 1843
    Noah Webster additional lessons in Latin, Greek, geography, and higher math.1758-1843

    • Felt that American students should have textbooks on the American language and experience

    • Wrote three books- a speller, a grammar book, and a reader

    • His speller became known as “The American Spelling Book.”

    • Fulfilled a need for students to have textbooks and reference books that related to the “new” American culture

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    Ben franklin 1706 1790
    Ben Franklin additional lessons in Latin, Greek, geography, and higher math.1706-1790

    • Self-educated man who felt that science was the key to solving problems

    • Planned an English language school with a curriculum that focused on scientific and practical skills

    • His goal was to have students who were aware of the way learning connected to the world.


    • His focus on science and utilitarian subjects was very different from the classical tradition

    • Wanted to prepare students to make contributions in all areas of life

    • His major contribution was his push for a new kind of education that would correspond to the needs of a new nation.

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    William holmes mcguffey 1800 1873
    William Holmes McGuffey different from the classical tradition1800-1873

    • Known for his passion for education and preaching the gospel

    • Became a teacher at the age of 14, he had 48 students in a one room school

    • Wrote a series of readers for students


    • The first reader used phonics to teach reading different from the classical tradition

    • The second reader used vivid stories the children could remember.

    • His readers were meant to promote morality through stories. These stories were about character and truth.

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    Benjamin rush
    Benjamin Rush different from the classical tradition

    • Top priority was a reform of American education

    • New kind of education was required for the new democracy

    • Felt that the success of the United States depended on science



    Horace mann 1796 1859
    Horace Mann instruct their children1796-1859

    • Known as the “Father of American Public Education”

    • Believed that society could be improved through education and proper environment

    • Believed that state organized education could teach moral and civic values without promoting a specific doctrine


    • Pushed for education laws that would require towns to provide school for all children whether they were residents or not

    • Founded first state institutions for training teachers, believed that teaching was a skill that required development

    • Convinced that public education could create a better society, education was an equalizer for all men

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    Quiz provide school for all children whether they were residents or not

    • The first to distinguish instruction from subject matter was Herbart or Franklin?

    • Herbart

    • Urged secondary schools to establish an elective system of courses? Eliot or Jefferson

    • Eliot


    • Developed kindergarten? Froebel or Jefferson? provide school for all children whether they were residents or not

    • Froebel

    • Proposed a free public school system. Jefferson or Froebel

    • Jefferson

    • Developed the McGuffey Readers. Jefferson or McGuffey

    • McGuffey

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    References
    References provide school for all children whether they were residents or not

    Charles Eliot. (n.d.). http://www.coe.ufl.edu/webtech/GreatIdeas/pages/peoplepage/eliot.htm

    Charles William Eliot. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_William_Eliot

    Friedrich Froebel and Informal Education. (n.d.). http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-froeb.htm

    Herbert Spencer. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Spencer

    Herbert Spencer (1820-1903). http://www.victorianweb.org/philosophy/spencer/spencer.html

    Holmes, Brian. Herbert Spencer. Prospects. 1994(24).http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/publications/ThinkersPdf/spencere.pdf

    Horace Mann. Only a Teacher. http://www.pbs.org/onlyateacher/horace.html

    Johann Friedrich Herbart. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbart


    Johann Friedrich Herbart. provide school for all children whether they were residents or not

    http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/history/herbart.html

    Kindig, Thomas. (2007). Benjamin Franklin. Signers of the declaration of independence: Short biographies of each of the 56 declaration signers. http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/signers/franklin.htm

    Kindig, Thomas. (2007). Benjamin Rush. Signers of the declaration of independence: Short biographies of each of the 56 declaration signers. http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/signers/rush.htm

    Leitch, Alexander. (1978). Rush, Benjamin. http://etcweb.princeton.edu/CampusWWW/Companion/rush_benjamin.html

    Mason-King, Pam. (n.d.). Horace Mann. Retrieved October 1, 2007 from http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/mann.html

    Meiss, Christina. Benjamin Franklin.

    http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/franklin.html


    Noah Webster. provide school for all children whether they were residents or nothttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah_Webster

    Smith, Mark. (1997). Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-pest.htm

    Sparagana, Jeff. (2002). The educational theory of Thomas Jefferson. http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Jefferson.html

    Wassenhove, Emily. Benjamin Rush.

    http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/rush.html

    Weinstein, David. (2002). Herbert Spencer. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/spencer/

    William Holmes McGuffey. (2007). http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=263


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