Real world techniques to tighten purchasing controls and ensure the quality of incoming goods
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Real-World Techniques to Tighten Purchasing Controls and Ensure the Quality of Incoming Goods. Isaac Mazliach S.D.M. Consulting. What We’ll Cover …. Why use SAP Quality Management (QM)? Setting up QM in Purchasing Master data needed Inspection at the vendor’s site

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Real-World Techniques to Tighten Purchasing Controls and Ensure the Quality of Incoming Goods

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Real world techniques to tighten purchasing controls and ensure the quality of incoming goods

Real-World Techniques to Tighten Purchasing Controls and Ensure the Quality of Incoming Goods

Isaac Mazliach

S.D.M. Consulting


What we ll cover

What We’ll Cover …

Why use SAP Quality Management (QM)?

Setting up QM in Purchasing

Master data needed

Inspection at the vendor’s site

Inspection at Goods Receipt

Integrating inspection results with Vendor Evaluation

The use of Audit Management

What’s new in SAP ERP?

Wrap-up


Why use sap qm

Why Use SAP QM?

Purpose

With the functions of this component, you can implement the most important elements of a quality management system

Integration

The integration of the QM application component in the SAP system allows quality management tasks to be combined with those in other applications (such as Materials Management, Production Planning, Sales and Distribution, and Cost Accounting)

Benefits

Do I need to convince you of this?


Qm features general

QM Features — General

  • The QM application component supports tasks associated with quality planning, quality inspection and quality control. In addition, it controls the creation of quality certificates and manages problems with the help of quality notifications.

  • The following components are available in QM:

    • Basic data (for example, Material Master, catalogs, inspection characteristics, inspection methods, and sampling procedures)

    • Inspection planning (inspection plans, reference operation sets, and material specifications)

    • QM in procurement

    • QM in sales and distribution

    • Inspection lot processing (inspection lot creation and inspection lot completion)


Qm features general cont

QM Features — General (cont.)

  • The following components are available in QM (cont.)

    • Results recording

    • Defects recording

    • Sample management

    • Quality Information System

    • Dynamic modification of the inspection scope

    • Quality certificates

    • Quality notifications

    • Test equipment management


What we ll cover1

What We’ll Cover …

Why use SAP Quality Management (QM)?

Setting up QM in Purchasing

Master data needed

Inspection at the vendor’s site

Inspection at Goods Receipt

Integrating inspection results with Vendor Evaluation

The use of Audit Management

What’s new in SAP ERP?

Wrap-up


Customizing settings for qm in procurement

Customizing Settings for QM in Procurement 

  • The following slides identify settings that can be made in the Customizing application in order to use the quality management functions in procurement


Keys for certificate processing

Keys for Certificate Processing

  • Keys are defined for processing quality certificates and are stored in the Material Master record. These keys stipulate that a certificate be requested from the vendor for every Purchase Order item. The keys can also be used to determine:

    • Whether the system checks that a certificate has already been received for the Purchase Order item during Goods Receipt

    • Whether a certificate must be provided for a Purchase Order item with every Goods Receipt

    • The notification type generated by the system if the required certificate is not present


Keys for certificate processing cont

Keys for Certificate Processing (cont.)

  • Keys are defined in the Customizing application for blocking supply relationships. Depending on whether the block applies to all, or only some, of the materials from a vendor, a blocking key is stored in the Vendor Master or in the Q-info record for the "material * vendor" combination.

  • The key controls blocking of the following transactions:

    • Request for quotation

    • Purchase Order

    • Goods Receipt


Document types

Document Types  

  • There are two types of system support for exchanging Q documents with vendors:

    • Technical delivery terms (document type Q02)

    • Quality assurance agreements (document type Q01)

  • These documents are used during procurement operations (for requests for quotation and Purchase Orders, that is), and are sent to the vendor

  • The standard SAP system contains fixed settings for these document types, such as:

    • Changes to a document cause a new version to be created in the system

    • The status sequence of the document is suitably defined


Qm systems

QM Systems

  • Verification requirements with regard to the QM system of the vendor are defined

  • You store the actual QM system in the Vendor Master record at the client level or in the Q-info record for the material-vendor combination at the plant level

  • In procurement (request for quotation and Purchase Order), the system checks whether the vendor’s QM system meets the specified requirements for the material or material group that is to be purchased


Status of the supply relationships

Status of the Supply Relationships

  • Status profiles are defined for the supply relationships. An inspection type is assigned to each status contained in the profile.

  • You can stipulate that deliveries of materials from a vendor must pass through several statuses. For example:

    • Model series

    • Preliminary series delivery

    • Production series delivery

  • These statuses can be assigned different inspection types with corresponding plan usages. The system will then select inspection plans to match the status of the supply relationship.


Other customization settings

Other Customization Settings

  • Maintain QM Standard Setting Catalogs

    • QCCK – The purpose of this activity is to copy entries for QM standard settings for catalogs from client 000 to the installation client

  • Maintain QM Standard Setting Quality Notifications

    • QCCM – The purpose of this activity is to copy entries for QM Standard Settings for Quality Notifications from client 000 to the installation client

  • Maintain Settings at Plant Level

    • SPRO – Quality Management  Basic Settings  Maintain Setting at Plant Level: Plant-Dependent QM Setting


Other customization settings cont

Other Customization Settings (cont.)

  • Define Catalog Profile

    • The purpose of this activity is to define a catalog profile and to assign the permitted code groups to that catalog profile

      • IMG  Quality Management  Quality Notifications  Notification Creation  Notification Content Define Catalog Profile

  • Define Action Box

    • The purpose of this activity is to define additional functions (activities) that can be performed during the processing of a notification:

      • IMG  Quality Management  Quality Notifications  Notification Processing  Additional Notification Functions  Define Action Box


Inspection lot creation purpose

Inspection Lot Creation: Purpose

  • In the Quality Management (QM) component, you process quality inspections on the basis of inspection lots.

    • If you want to inspect a specific quantity of a material or a piece of equipment, an inspection lot must be created in the system

    • The documentation describes how inspection lots are created automatically or manually, and how you use the inspection lots to process different types of inspections

    • Once an inspection lot has been created, you can inspect the goods, record the inspection results or defects, and complete the inspection with a usage decision


Inspection lot creation implementation considerations

Inspection Lot Creation: Implementation Considerations

  • You should implement the Inspection Lot Creation component if you want to create inspection lots in the system. You must also implement the following additional QM components to be able to plan, process, and complete the inspections:

    • Basic Data (QM-PT-BD)

    • Inspection Planning (QM-PT-IP)

    • Results Recording (QM-IM-RR)

    • Defects Recording (QM-IM-RR-DEF)

    • Inspection Lot Completion (QM-IM-UD)


Inspection lot creation integration

Inspection Lot Creation: Integration

  • You must also implement the following component in the logistics supply chain: Materials Management (MM)

    • Manage materials and material stocks in the system and process inspections for goods movements


What we ll cover2

What We’ll Cover …

Why use SAP Quality Management (QM)?

Setting up QM in Purchasing

Master data needed

Inspection at the vendor’s site

Inspection at Goods Receipt

Integrating inspection results with Vendor Evaluation

The use of Audit Management

What’s new in SAP ERP?

Wrap-up


Master data

Master Data

  • Enhance Material Master (QM View):

    • The purpose of this activity is to maintain the Material Master using the quality management view:

      Logistics Materials Management  Material Master Material  Change  Immediately (MM02):

  • The table on the right demonstrates some of the fields available for entry/use


Master data cont

Master Data (cont.)

  • Create Master Inspection Characteristic:

    Logistics  Quality Management  Quality Planning Basic Data  Inspection Characteristic  Create: QS21:

    • Qualitative characteristics

    • Quantitative characteristics

  • Maintain Material Specification: Logistics  Quality Management  Quality Planning Inspection Planning  Material Specification  Edit: QS61


  • Quality information record

    Quality Information Record 

    • If a quality assurance agreement or a vendor release is required for a material, you must create a Quality Information Record (QIR). The QIR determines how the material can be processed further.


    Quality information record cont

    Quality Information Record (cont.) 

    • When a quotation or Purchase Order is created, the system checks whether a QIR is required and is available for the combination of material and vendor

    • The system also checks whether the vendor and material-vendor combination is blocked or released for quotations, Purchase Orders, and/or Goods Receipts. The execution of this check depends on the setting of the QM in Procurement control key in the Material Master.

    • The QIR displays a vendor block specified in the Vendor Master, the vendor's QM system, and the lock date

    • You can also specify a status profile for releasing the supply relationship and the QM system of the material-vendor combination in the QIR. You can also decide whether you want to deactivate the Goods Receipt inspection or perform a Goods Receipt inspection and/or source inspection.

    22


    Characteristics

    Characteristics

    • The design of different inspections per material etc. is configured using the characteristics technique:

      • Create master Inspection characteristics (Plant level)

      • Create Inspection Plan (Material+Plant level)

      • Add Operations to the Inspection Plan

      • Assign the Master Inspection Plan to each operation


    Create master inspection characteristics plant level

    Create Master Inspection Characteristics (Plant Level)


    Create inspection plan material plant level

    Create Inspection Plan (Material+Plant Level)


    Add operations to the inspection plan

    Add Operations to the Inspection Plan


    Assign the master inspection plan to each operation

    Assign the Master Inspection Plan to Each Operation


    What we ll cover3

    What We’ll Cover …

    Why use SAP Quality Management (QM)?

    Setting up QM in Purchasing

    Master data needed

    Inspection at the vendor’s site

    Inspection at Goods Receipt

    Integrating inspection results with Vendor Evaluation

    The use of Audit Management

    What’s new in SAP ERP?

    Wrap-up


    Inspection at the vendor s site general

    Inspection at the Vendor’s Site: General

    • Source inspections are performed upon request and with the participation of the customer or sold-to party. A source inspection can be performed by the receiver of the service, the vendor in the presence of the receiver, or by a person or third party (for example, a surveyor) appointed by the receiver.

    • Inspection lots for source inspections that reference a purchasing document can be created with or without specifying a (vendor) batch. (Set the Inspect Without Batch indicator in the worklist for source inspections).

    • If the inspection lot for the source inspection is rejected for a Goods Receipt item, the Customizing settings for the QM in the procurement control key determine whether:

      • A Goods Receipt posting is not possible or

      • A quality notification is not created and a new inspection lot is created


    Triggering of source inspections

    Triggering of Source Inspections 

    • When the system generates a worklist for source inspections, it only considers materials and vendors for which:

      • Quality information records exist (these records specify a source inspection as the inspection type)

      • The inspection type has been defined and activated in the Material Master record

    • You can manually generate a list of materials that are defined for a source inspection


    Triggering source inspections manually

    Triggering Source Inspections Manually 

    • Choose:Logistics  Quality management ª Quality inspection ªWorklist ª Inspection lot creation ª Source inspection ªTrigger manually

    • The system creates a list of materials that are defined for a source inspection

    • Options:

      • Create an inspection lot for an item in the list

      • Display the scheduling agreement (Purchase Order) for a material

      • Display the quality information record for a material


    What we ll cover4

    What We’ll Cover …

    Why use SAP Quality Management (QM)?

    Setting up QM in Purchasing

    Master data needed

    Inspection at the vendor’s site

    Inspection at Goods Receipt

    Integrating inspection results with Vendor Evaluation

    The use of Audit Management

    What’s new in SAP ERP?

    Wrap-up


    Vendor release

    Vendor Release

    • The quality department releases a vendor for a certain material. It can also restrict the release to a certain period of time or a certain quantity. If the vendor has serious quality problems, the Quality System can safeguard against this by blocking requests for Quotations, Purchase Orders, or Goods Receipts for certain materials from that vendor.


    Inspection skip for certified vendors

    Inspection Skip for Certified Vendors

    • Vendors that have certified QM systems in use may be able to maintain a higher product quality than those without QM systems. In Customizing for QM in Procurement, you can waive the requirement for Goods Receipt inspections when goods are delivered from vendors who have certified QM systems in use. If you waive the inspection requirement:

      • The system does not create an inspection lot when goods are procured from these vendors

      • The goods are posted directly to unrestricted-use stock when they are received

    • In Customizing for QM in Procurement (Define QM systems), you must set the indicator Certified QM System for the QM system that is presently in use


    Inspection skip for certified vendors cont

    Inspection Skip for Certified Vendors (cont.)

    • If you want to define a QM system and be able to control inspection skips, you must maintain various master records:

      • You define the requirements for a vendor's QM system in the Material Master record

      • You specify the vendor's QM system (which is identified in Customizing as a certified system) in the Vendor Master record or the quality info record

      • In the quality info record, you can override an inspection skip that has been defined in Customizing. For example, if you want to force inspections for a certain combination of material, vendor, and plant, you can specify this in the corresponding quality info record.


    Quality certificate for goods receipt

    Quality Certificate for Goods Receipt

    • When you procure goods from a vendor, you can request that the vendor submit a quality certificate with the shipment of goods (in addition to meeting the requirements specified in the technical delivery terms and quality assurance agreement). If you request a quality certificate:

      • You can monitor the receipt of the certificate independently of the Goods Receipt posting …

      • Regardless of whether an inspection lot is created or not. The certificate can be filed in the optical archive. If a certificate is yet to be delivered, a reminder can be created automatically.


    Quality certificate for goods receipt cont

    Quality Certificate for Goods Receipt (cont.)


    Electronic certificate receipt of a quality certificate for delivery

    Electronic Certificate Receipt of a Quality Certificate for Delivery


    What we ll cover5

    What We’ll Cover …

    Why use SAP Quality Management (QM)?

    Setting up QM in Purchasing

    Master data needed

    Inspection at the vendor’s site

    Inspection at Goods Receipt

    Integrating inspection results with Vendor Evaluation

    The use of Audit Management

    What’s new in SAP ERP?

    Wrap-up


    General

    General

    The Vendor Evaluation belongs primarily to the purchasing area. Its functionality and the relevant customizing can therefore be found in the SAP purchasing component.

    The QM component contributes to the calculation of the criterion “Quality”

    The Quality criterion contains the automatically valuated subcriteria:

    Goods Receipt

    Audit

    Complaints


    Goods receipt gr

    Goods Receipt (GR)

    The Goods Receipt score is calculated from the quality score (QSc) for the inspection lots, according to the following formula:

    QSc = (S1 + S2) / (n1 + n2), where:

    S1 = Sum of quality scores for the inspection lotsn1 = Number of inspection lotsn2 = Number of deliveries for materials with a quality information record, for which no inspection lots exist

    QScmax = highest value of Quality scores, andS2 = n2 * QScmax

    You can break down the GR score for the vendor according to the material and the inspection type


    Audit

    Audit

    The audit score is either the average quality score for the audits or is made up of the quality scores for the most recent audits

    You can also enter an audit score manually


    Complaints

    Complaints

    The complaints score is calculated from the number of complaints against the vendor, according to the following formula:

    QSc = QScmin + (QScmax - QScmin) * (1 - (N * K) / (F * U))QSc = QScmin if  (N * K) > (F * U)

    where:

    QScmin  =  Lower limit for QScQScmax  =  Upper limit for QScN       =  Number of Q-notifications in the applicability periodK       =  Estimated nonconformity costsF       = Share of business volume for QSc calculationU       =  Sales of the vendor in the applicability period


    What we ll cover6

    What We’ll Cover …

    Why use SAP Quality Management (QM)?

    Setting up QM in Purchasing

    Master data needed

    Inspection at the vendor’s site

    Inspection at Goods Receipt

    Integrating inspection results with Vendor Evaluation

    The use of Audit Management

    What’s new in SAP ERP?

    Wrap-up


    Audit usage

    Audit Usage

    You can use Audit Management for a variety of purposes — to perform quality audits or environmental audits, for example. In general terms, you can apply Audit Management to any usage involving the valuation and appraisal of material or intangible items on the basis of a question list.


    Audit type

    Audit Type

    You specify an audit usage (for example, quality audit) and an audit category (for example, system audit, process audit, or product audit) to provide a closer definition of the audit type. Note: The audit usages are defined in a Customizing table. The audit categories are predefined in the system.These specifications only serve to differentiate between audit types. They have no controlling effect.


    New functionality in sap erp

    New Functionality in SAP ERP

    Creation of corrective actions:

    You can use a BAdI to create a business object, such as a quality notification, for a corrective action

    Better integration Document Management System (DMS), e.g., viewing Document Information Record (DIR) data as thumbnails in the Audit document

    Better integration of DMS with Knowledge Management (KM) in SAP NetWeaver® Portal


    What we ll cover7

    What We’ll Cover …

    Why use SAP Quality Management (QM)?

    Setting up QM in Purchasing

    Master data needed

    Inspection at the vendor’s site

    Inspection at Goods Receipt

    Integrating inspection results with Vendor Evaluation

    The use of Audit Management

    What’s new in SAP ERP?

    Wrap-up


    Sample management enhanced

    Sample Management (Enhanced)

    As of SAP ECC 5.0 the following fields were added to the master record of physical samples:

    Sampling Location

    Sampling Location Information

    Processor

    Date of Sample Drawing

    Time of Sample Drawing

    You can select according to these and other fields using the worklists for results recording transactions QE52 and QE51N. You can also select according to the sample status.


    Communication with quality inspection engines

    Communication with Quality Inspection Engines

    As of SAP ERP 6.0, SAP_APPL 600, you can use Customizing to control the communication between SAP or other quality management systems and the Quality Inspection Engine (QIE)

    The QIE allows you to perform quality inspections when using a combination of different SAP solutions or even non-SAP applications

    The QIE is service-oriented, and therefore supports new processes; for example, inspections can be performed if you are using decentralized Warehouse Management in SAP Supply Chain Management (SAP SCM)

    If required, the QIE can transfer inspection requests to Quality Management (QM) in SAP ERP. This allows you to use additional functions, such as characteristic-based results recording.


    Communication with quality inspection engines cont

    Communication with Quality Inspection Engines (cont.)

    • You make the settings in Customizing for QM in the following IMG activities:

      • Assign Properties

      • BAdI: Creation of Inspection Lots for Externally Triggered Inspection

      • BAdI: Change of Inspection Lots for Externally Triggered Inspection

      • BAdI: Copying of Inspection Decisions for Externally Triggered Inspection

      • Activate Event Type Linkage for Confirmations


    Structure changes to the quality management img

    Structure Changes to the Quality Management IMG

    As of SAP ERP 6.0, SAP_APPL 600, the structure of the Implementation Guide (IMG) for Quality Management has changed

    To copy these changes to project IMGs, you must regenerate the project IMGs


    New img activities

    New IMG Activities

    Area Quality Planning  Inspection Planning  General  Multiple Specifications: All IMG activities in this area are new.

    Area Quality Inspection  Results Recording  Make Settings for Operation Completion

    Area Quality Control 

    Define View Implementations for Evaluations of Original Documents

    Define Data Definition for Evaluations of Original Documents

    Define View Types for Evaluations of Original Documents

    Define Graphic Types for Evaluations of Original Documents


    New img activities cont

    New IMG Activities (cont.)

    • Area Environment  Tools  Business Add-Ins  Quality Inspection 

      • BAdI for Aggregation when Evaluating Original Documents

      • BAdI for Definition of Views for Evaluations of Original Documents

      • Multiple Specifications: Valuations of Objects

      • Define Object Names for Multiple Specifications

    • Area Environment  Tools  Communication with Quality Inspection Engines: All IMG activities in this area are new.


    Multiple specifications

    Multiple Specifications

    As of SAP ERP 6.0, SAP_APPL 600, new functions for processing multiple specifications are available in the QM application component

    When you are deciding how to use a material or batch you sometimes require additional information about the suitability or admissibility of the product (for example, because of customer-specific or country-specific requirements, or requirements specified by pharmacopoeia). In the SAP system, you can define such criteria in inspection plans using multiple specifications, based on various objects such as country, customer, pharmacopoeia, and so on.


    Multiple specifications cont

    Multiple Specifications (cont.)

    You use the multiple specifications to determine the suitability of a batch based on particular specifications. The overall valuation of a batch for each object tells you whether or not the batch can be delivered to a specific customer or used under certain conditions. The use of multiple specifications influences all inspection processing activities in Quality Management (QM), from inspection planning through to certificate creation.


    Multiple specifications cont1

    Multiple Specifications (cont.)

    With the new functions, you can:

    Maintain multiple specifications using the Engineering Workbench (EWB)

    Call up and display multiple specifications for information purposes throughout the entire inspection process in QM

    Use multiple specifications as the basis for the valuation of characteristics in results recording

    Use multiple specifications in the usage decision for the overall valuation of a product for a country, customer, or pharmacopoeia

    Use multiple specifications to represent the suitability when valuating an inspected batch using the batch classification

    Consider multiple specifications when creating quality certificates

    Output multiple specifications in inspection reports


    What we ll cover8

    What We’ll Cover …

    Why use SAP Quality Management (QM)?

    Setting up QM in Purchasing

    Master data needed

    Inspection at the vendor’s site

    Inspection at Goods Receipt

    Integrating inspection results with Vendor Evaluation

    The use of Audit Management

    What’s new in SAP ERP?

    Wrap-up


    Resources

    Resources

    • http://help.sap.com

      • Quality management; quality management in Purchasing

        http://help.sap.com/saphelp_erp60_sp/helpdata/en/a6/df293581dc1f79e10000009b38f889/frameset.htm

    • IMG help

      • Follow SPRO  Quality management  Planning

    • Audit management release notes (SAP ERP 2005 ECC 6.0): https://websmp201.sap-ag.de/releasenotes *

    • Quality management release notes (SAP ERP 2004 ECC 5.0 and SAP ERP 2005 ECC 6.0):https://websmp201.sap-ag.de/releasenotes *

      * Requires login credentials to the SAP Service Marketplace


    7 key points to take home

    7 Key Points to Take Home

    • SAP QM can be used to inspect the received goods from suppliers to support information gathering

    • Integrating QM and Vendor Evaluation may result in better supplier selection

    • Integrating QM and SRM allows the introduction of surveys — but then we need to create BW cubes to support it

    • Source inspection should be used as often as possible to reduce transportation waste


    7 key points to take home cont

    7 Key Points to Take Home (cont.)

    • Inspection at Goods Receipt can be performed on the total quantity or on a specific sample. The results are entered using a single transaction that can be used to enter the inspection results and also return the goods to the supplier or move the goods from QM stock to standard stock, etc.

    • Integrating QM and Audit Management may allow more information to be captured on the performance of each supplier

    • SAP provides interfaces to different QM systems and their integration with SAP ERP


    Your turn

    Your Turn!

    How to contact me:

    • Isaac Mazliach

    • [email protected]


    Disclaimer

    Disclaimer

    SAP, R/3, mySAP, mySAP.com, xApps, xApp, SAP NetWeaver®, Duet™, PartnerEdge, and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP AG in Germany and in several other countries all over the world. All other product and service names mentioned are the trademarks of their respective companies. Wellesley Information Services is neither owned nor controlled by SAP.


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