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Refugee and Migration Policy in the European Union: towards a new approch ? Cicero Foundation, Paris 18-19 November 2004 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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New trends within OECD countries to encourage the international migration of highly skilled workers: overview and challenges Jean-Christophe Dumont OECD. Refugee and Migration Policy in the European Union: towards a new approch ? Cicero Foundation, Paris 18-19 November 2004.

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Refugee and Migration Policy in the European Union: towards a new approch ? Cicero Foundation, Paris 18-19 November 2004

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Refugee and migration policy in the european union towards a new approch cicero foundation paris 18 19 november 2004

New trends within OECD countries to encourage the international migration of highly skilled workers: overview and challengesJean-Christophe Dumont OECD

Refugee and Migration Policy in the European Union: towards a new approch ?Cicero Foundation, Paris 18-19 November 2004


Purpose and scope

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Purpose and Scope

  • This presentation aims at reviewing the recent changes in the international mobility of the highly skilled focusing on the role and limits of migration policies in OECD countries.

  • The first part will describe how most OECD countries have recently adapted their immigration policies to facilitate the recruitment of highly skilled foreign workers

  • The second part will present the main limits of these policies

  • The conclusion will address briefly the potential impacts on developing countries


Economic context and policy responses

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Economic context and policy responses

  • In the late 90’s employers reported labour shortages

    • … in highly skilled occupations …

    • … as well as for semi and low skilled jobs

  • Labour shortages had many causes including (i) economic boom, (ii) rapid technological changes, (iii) mismatch between supply and demand of labour, (iv) lack of labour mobility, (v) structural rigidities in the labour market and (v) overestimation of the needs.

  • Most OECD countries responded, inter alia, by adapting their migration policy to facilitate the recruitment of foreign qualified labour …

  • … because short term solutions were needed and because “the more the better”


Selective employment related immigration policies in oecd countries

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Selective employment-related immigration policies in OECD countries

  • OECD countries faced similar needs for highly skilled workers

  • … but responded by different types of policies such as

  • Adapting selective migration policies (Canada, Australia)

  • Introducing or reviewing specific migration programs (Germany, UK, USA, Norway)

  • Creating labour shortage occupation lists (UK, Australia, Ireland)

  • Easing labour recruitment (France, Japan, Korea) and changes of status

  • Creating special incentive for recruiting highly skilled workers

  • Despite recent changes in the economic business cycle, these policies have not been challenged significantly


Refugee and migration policy in the european union towards a new approch cicero foundation paris 18 19 november 2004

International mobility of doctors

« Cascade » Migration

former Soviet-Union republics

Ukraine

other NIC

Russia

EU Countries

Canada

Rural

1345

Settelment countries

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

4234

Cuba

433

20075

2282

450

3807

United States

3625

South Africa

1345

1114

4635

214

1106

1018

United Kingdom

Australia

New Zealand


International migration of the highly skilled in figures

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

International migration of the highly skilled in figures


Potentialities and limits

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Potentialities and limits

  • Past experiences in migration policies for the recruitment of foreign labour demonstrate the positive role that can be played by foreign workers, especially during periods of strong economic growth …

  • … but also underline some of the limits to such policies, which relate mainly to :

  • Identification and selection of suitable foreign workers

  • Implementation and adaptability of employment related migration programs

  • Efficiency and external constraints


Taking into account the potential impact on origin countries

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Taking into account the potential impact on origin countries …

  • Better sharing the benefits of the international mobility of the highly skilled :

  • a shared responsibility between sending and receiving countries

  • Efficiency : facilitating the international mobility

  • Ethics: considering the potential negative impacts (code of conduct)

  • Equity: sharing the cost of human capital investment

  • Sustainability : improving the management of human resources in sending and receiving countries


Especially in small and ld countries

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

… especially in small and LD countries


Conclusion

OECD Directorate for Employment Labour and Social Affairs, DELSA

Conclusion

  • Although it is hard to gauge the nature and size of labour shortages, research stresses short term and long term needs for skilled labour

  • From the point of view of OECD countries, employment-related immigration policies will be effective only within limits.

  • As migration alone can not alleviate the impact of population ageing it won’t resolve labour market failures. Current efforts to introduce a raft of measures to tap existing labour reserves in OECD countries should therefore be encouraged and pursued.

  • Furthermore, the potential impacts of selective migration policies on origin countries needs to be better taken into account and the coherence between migration and international cooperation policies to be significantly strengthened.


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