Episodic memory: Retrieval processes. systematic study of role of retrieval processes in remembering started with work of Canadian psychologist Endel Tulving. (who also introduced distinction between episodic and semantic memory). Episodic memory: Retrieval processes .
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(who also introduced
episodic and semantic
hierarchical model proposed in combination with idea of spreading activation and cognitive economy
+ many hierarchical effects in RT disappear once frequency of properties in language usage is taken into account (Conrad, 1972)
e.g. dog is an animal vs dog is a mammal
+ some exemplars of a category are verified more rapidly than others:
robin is a bird vs penguin is a bird
-> prototypicality effect
+ systematic differences in RT for negative sentences that have to do with degree of semantic relatedness between concepts
poodle is a bird vs poodle is a mineral
+ how can we come up with the proper hierarchy in the first place?
e.g. how does ‘pet’ fit in?
Subsequent modifications to semantic memorythe model: Collins & Loftus’ ‘spreading activation theory’
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Collins & Loftus’ ‘spreading activation theory’ semantic memory