Temperature and pressure
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Temperature and pressure. Remember: Temperature is the average speed of molecules. Predictions: What do you think happens to Pressure as Temperature Increases? What do you think happens to Pressure as Temperature Decreases?. Temperature, pressure, and density.

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Temperature and pressure

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Temperature and pressure

Temperature and pressure

  • Remember: Temperature is the average speed of molecules.

    Predictions:

  • What do you think happens to Pressure as Temperature Increases?

  • What do you think happens to Pressure as Temperature Decreases?


Temperature pressure and density

Temperature, pressure, and density

  • When temperature , pressure , density

  • When temperature , pressure, density

  • Why?

    • Pressure decreases the farther away from Earth’s surface because there is less stuff

    • Pressure increases the closer towards Earth’s surface because there is more stuff pressing down on you.

    • Why does temperature decrease in the troposphere as you move away from Earth?


What is wind

What is wind?

  • How heat flows on land.

    • Cool Air Sinks and forces Warm Air to Rise

  • Air moves from high pressure (cool) to low pressure (warm) areas

  • Current carries heat through water.

  • Wind speeds increase the farther up in the atmosphere you go.


Humidity

Humidity

  • The amount of water vapor in the air.

  • Relative Humidity: How much water a parcel of air is capable of holding.

    • Changes with temperature

    • What is a Parcel:

      • Think balloon containing air


Dew point

Dew Point

  • Temperature air needs to be cooled to until it can hold no more water

    • Remember cold air can hold less stuff then warm air.

    • At this point water will condense

    • On the right stuff this

      condensation of water forms

      clouds

Dew ≠ Rain

Cloud Condensation ≠ Rain


How do clouds form

How do clouds form?

1stStep: We Need Condensation Nuclei

2nd Step: Air Needs to Be Lifted

What’s that?

Moist Air Rises and Expands

Most Common:

1). Lifted Over A Mountain…

Orographic Lifting

2). Frontal Wedging

Meeting a very different air mass


Somehow we need to get air to rise

Somehow….we need to get air to rise…

  • Orographic Lifting:

    • Mountain is more dense,

      So the air rises over.

  • Frontal Wedging

Dry adiabatic cooling rate

*10C/1000 m

When does air stop cooling at this rate?


Types of clouds

Types of clouds

Height Descriptions = Prefixes

Shape = 2nd half

1). Cirro: Very High Clouds

2). Alto: Middle Clouds

3). Strato: Low Clouds

Cirrus: Thin Wispy

like hair

Cumulus: Big Puffy/

Lumpy Clouds

Cotton Balls

Stratus: Continuous

Cloud

Nimbus = Storm Cloud


Identify that cloud

Identify that cloud

Cirrus


Identify that cloud1

Identify that cloud

Cirrocumulus


Identify that cloud2

Identify that cloud

Cirrostratus


Identify that cloud3

Identify that cloud

Altostratus


Identify that cloud4

Identify that cloud

Altocumulus


Identify that cloud5

Identify that cloud

Stratocumulus


Identify that cloud6

Identify that cloud

Cumulonimbus


Identify that cloud7

Identify that cloud

Stratonimbus


Types of stability

Types of stability

Stable Atmosphere

Unstable Atmosphere

Air is sinking; high pressure

Clouds are thin or not present

Air is rising; low pressure

Clouds tall

Intense Precipitation possible

Severe storms possible


Temperature and pressure

Fog

  • When the dew point of water vapor is reached close to the surface

  • Advection Fog: Happens during the morning hours

    • Horizontal movement of warm moist air from over water to land where temperatures are cooler.

  • Radiation Fog: happens on cool/clear nights

    • Heat escapes from Earth and Earth cools down


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