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Semester Exam Topics ChapterTopics 1 Density, Metric System, ConversionsPowerPoint Presentation

Semester Exam Topics ChapterTopics 1 Density, Metric System, Conversions

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Semester Exam Topics ChapterTopics 1 Density, Metric System, Conversions

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Semester Exam Topics ChapterTopics 1 Density, Metric System, Conversions

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- Semester Exam Topics
- ChapterTopics
- 1 Density, Metric System, Conversions
- know kilograms, milliliters, density = mass/volume
- 2Chemical vs. Physical changes,
- eg: rusting, distillation, decomposition, synthesis, dissolving…
- 4 Atoms, Atomic Theory know scientists, subatomic particles, isotopes
- 5 Electronic Structure, Quantum Theory, Periodic Properties,
- know how to write electron configurations, know quantum numbers, atomic radius, 1st ionization energy, ion formation, metal reactivity, electronegativity
- 6,7Writing Formulas, Naming Compounds, Types of Bonds
- 10 Mole, Molar Mass, Mole Conversions
- 9 Types of Equations synthesis, decomposition, single & double replacement , combustion
- 11Stoichiometry, Limiting Reactant, % Composition, & Empirical formulas
- **Scientific Notation and Significant Figures

Isotopes, Electrons, Density:

Write the atomic symbol for nitrogen-14& nitrogen-15

147N has 7 neutrons & 157N has 8 neutrons

Write the electron configuration for each:

Zinc:

Oxide ion:

Calculate the density of a 4cm cube with a mass of 800g:

1s22s22p63s23p64s23d10

1s22s22p6

Volume = 4cm x 4cm x 4cm = 64cm3

Density = mass/volume = 200g/64cm3

= 12.5 g/cm3 so it will not float!

Hint: memorize this chart!

Number of Orbitals

(n2)

1

4

9

16

# of electrons possible

2

8

18

32

N

(n)

1

2

3

4

Orbital Shapes

(s,p,d,f)

1s

2s,2px,2py, 2pz

3s,3px,y,z , 3d (5)

4s,4px,y,z,,4d (5), 4f (7)

Scientists that contributed to the Atomic Model

JJ Thomson

- found negatively charges particles called electrons
- thought the atom looked like “plum pudding”

Neils Bohr

- proposed that electrons circle the nucleus in shells
- proposed a planetary model of the atom

John Dalton

- proposed that the atom is a small indivisible sphere of uniform density

Ernest Rutherford

- The atom contains a nucleus of positive particles and electrons traveling about the nucleus.
- He later added neutrons

Mendeleev

Discovered the periodicity of the elements. He left holes in the table and predicted properties of missing elements.

What happens to electrons?

One atom loses electrons, one gains

Two atoms share a pair of electrons evenly

Two atoms share a pair of electrons unevenly

Three types of Bonds

Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

Polar Covalent Bond

Electronegativity Difference

Metal + non metal

Examples: NaCl, CaCO3

Diatomic element, hydrocarbon

Examples: N2, CH4, Diamonds

Two different nonmetals

Examples: H2O, NH3

Properties are:

Lattice structure, solids salts

Gases, or network solids, non polar

Liquids that hold together by polar ends.

Write the Formula

Sodium hydroxide

Hydrochloric acid

Aluminum chloride

Iron (III) sulfate

Mercury (II) bromide

Ammonium phosphate

NaOH

HCl

AlCl3

Fe2(SO4)3

HgBr2

(NH4)PO4

Name the compound

K2S

BH3

Al2(SO3)3

AgCl

Fe2O3

NaHCO3

Potassium sulfide

Boron tri-hydride

Aluminum sulfite

Silver chloride

Iron III oxide

Sodium bicarbonate

Periodic Table of the Elements

H

HALOGENS

NOBLE GAS

nonmetals

ALKALI METALS

ALKALI EARTH

Transition Metals

Metalloids

INNER TRANSITION METALS

tend to be radioactive

Memorize the names of the families and their properties !

Summary of Trends in Periodic Table

Going across the periods

- more protons in the nucleus so…
- atomic radii decrease
- ionization energies increase
- metallic properties decrease

Going down the groups

- more electron shielding so…
- atomic radii increases
- ionization energies decrease
- metallic properties increase

Aluminum reacts with Copper (II) Chloride solution to make…?

Write a Balanced reaction:

How many grams of aluminum are needed to react with 200g of CuCl2 ?

How many grams of copper is formed form 100g Al + 200 g CuCl2?

If the yield is 95%, what is the actual copper formed?

How many liters of carbon dioxide will be formed in the combustion of 5kg of butane, C4H10?