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Features of the Literature Review. Purpose: to convey a lot of knowledge from the authors/experts in an easily accessible format Focus: main themes/ideas Rhetorical features: introduction, subheadings, conclusion

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features of the literature review
Features of the Literature Review
  • Purpose: to convey a lot of knowledge from the authors/experts in an easily accessible format
  • Focus: main themes/ideas
  • Rhetorical features: introduction, subheadings, conclusion
  • Style features: topic sentences describing the literature, signal phrases & transitions
  • Intellectual demands: lots of summary, paraphrase, and quotation
    • 30% of the literature review is your material
    • 70% is summary/paraphrase/quotation from sources
topic sentences introduce sections
Topic Sentences Introduce Sections

Organizational Structure/Dynamics

Many authors agree that the way in which an organization is set up structurally can either facilitate or hinder its use of teams and teamwork. For example, according to Butman (1993) and Baskerville (1993), a traditional organization, where lower level employees are treated as mindless workers who have no valid input, may have a much more difficult time implementing a team structure as compared to an organization where front line employee input is valued. Another study (Allcorn 2002) indicates that teams must be organized in ways that show the employer values all employees…

emphasis on transitions trends in the lit
Emphasis on transitions & trends in the lit
  • The most universally agreed upon idea of a team describes a group that has a clear and common purpose, with members who understand where they each fit in that purpose, and that uses agreed upon techniques (Allcorn, 1993; Robbins, 1996; “Seven”, 1996; Slobodnik, 1996). For example, Bhasin (1990), points out, “Groups can’t be teams unless the members know their roles (what position they play), and the ground rules (how the game is played).” Overall, the most commonly discussed traits of a team include common goals or purpose; communication and feedback; and, trust and mutual accountability (Hamilton, 1995; Baskerville, 1993; Bhasin, 1990; Klein, 1995; “Seven, “1996). With all of these characteristics present, a group has the ability to raise itself to the level of accomplishment that true teams can achieve.
whoa no transitions or relationships ugly
WHOA! No transitions or relationships (ugly!)
  • According to The Denver Post (2002), volunteerism has been on the decline since the late 1990s (p. 1). The article “Beyond the Party Image” (1998), says not enough people volunteer versus the need for volunteers (p. B7). Winbush and Cooper stated, “They are more likely to volunteer when they believe an organization is well-managed and will use their time wisely” (p. 13). According to Arthur Levine (1994), “Student commitment to service is low. Their volunteer activities are separate and unrelated their coursework and college life, so service tends to be marginal to their everyday world.” Finn, Chester, and Vanourek (1995) said, “The increasing appeal of service learning appears to have arisen from the belief that preparing the next generation for citizenship is a vital mission of any democratic society (p. 46).
where are the quotes stacked
Where are the quotes stacked?
  • According to Arthur Levine (1994), “Student commitment to service is low. For most undergraduates, their volunteer activities are separate and unrelated their coursework and college life, so service tends to be marginal to their everyday world.” “The former President Clinton signed into law an act establishing the Corporation for National and Community Service. The purpose of the new organization is to develop service opportunities for Americans of all ages and backgrounds and to harness their efforts toward solving the nation’s most urgent social problems such as: education, human services, public safety, and the environment.” (Also an example of a dropped quote.)
a successful literature review
Does

Organize different positions taken by the authors on relevant issues

Highlight important subthemes

Describe different positions taken by different writers

Synthesize the positions taken, showing relationships among them

Does Not

List what each source says, one by one

Offer an argument about which solution is best

Reveal the team’s opinion about issues

Suggest solutions to the organizational problem

A Successful Literature Review
your turn in your team
Your Turn, in Your Team
  • Identify the research question and sub-questions/themes addressed
  • Identify function of the introduction and conclusion
  • Highlight phrases which show trends in the literature
  • Circle verbs which show relationships among the sources
  • Underline attributive phrases
  • List questions you have about the assignment
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