Pacific Northwest Forest Tree  Gene Conservation Cooperative

Pacific Northwest Forest Tree Gene Conservation Cooperative PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Mission: To ensure that the adaptation and evolutionary potential of important regional tree species are maintained . Why support this effort? Conserving genetic variation is importantAdaptation: forest health and productivityDisease resistanceGlobal climate changeTree improvementMembership demonstrates a commitment to the environment and to the protection of genetic resources.

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Pacific Northwest Forest Tree Gene Conservation Cooperative

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1. Pacific Northwest Forest Tree Gene Conservation Cooperative

2. Mission: To ensure that the adaptation and evolutionary potential of important regional tree species are maintained

3. A Brief History of PNWFTGCG Prior to 1995 Gene conservation a topic at several WFGA meetings Periodic meetings of the “Gene Team” 1995 to 1999 Organization established in 1995 with 10 contributing members Produced a draft “framework document” 1997: Workshop to reach a consensus on approach Focus on eight commercial conifer species Two phase approach: (1) information gathering & (2) implementation Hire a two-year post-doc to conduct phase 1 Additional funds solicited, six new members

4. Two phase approach to gene conservation Phase 1: Survey existing genetic resources. Identify areas where genetic resources are well-protected and where additional conservation measures are warranted Phase 2: Identify tactical and management options for addressing gaps and long-term monitoring of genetic resources

5. Contributing members

6. Operating budget: Total member contributions = $105,000 Cooperative Aid agreement (OSU & PNW Research Station) = $90,764 Funding and expenses vary among years. Most expenses are for staff salary.   Staff: Sara Lipow: OSU Postdoctoral Research Associate, 0.75 FTE Ken Vance-Borland: OSU GIS Analyst, 0.25 FTE Brad St. Clair: PNW Research Station Geneticist Randy Johnson: PNW Research Station Geneticist

7. Phase 1: Survey of genetic resources

9. Distribution maps Based on plant associations and vegetation type Show distribution expected under climax conditions Model species density. Thus population size can be estimated Collaboration with Forest Service ecologists

10. Seed zones and ecoregions

11. Species with genetic resources well-protected throughout western Oregon and Washington Douglas-fir Western hemlock Western redcedar Sitka spruce Sugar pine*

12. Western white pine In the Puget lowlands, there are few trees in protected areas Very few selections have been screened for blister rust resistance Population is in decline Additional conservation may be warranted Coast range OR17: Fremont and Winema OR18: Warners Puget lowlands-eight adjacent ecoregions 2a: Fraser lowlands 2b: eastern Puget riverine lowlands 2e: eastern Puget uplands 2f: central Puget lowlands 2h: Cowlitz/Chehalis foothills 2i: Cowlitz/Newaukum prairie floodplains 1e: outwash 1f: Willapa Hills Low density in glacial outwash soils More common on Kitsap peninsula. Kitsap and Moran counties Heavily urbanized area extending northwest from Seattle Coast range OR17: Fremont and Winema OR18: Warners Puget lowlands-eight adjacent ecoregions 2a: Fraser lowlands 2b: eastern Puget riverine lowlands 2e: eastern Puget uplands 2f: central Puget lowlands 2h: Cowlitz/Chehalis foothills 2i: Cowlitz/Newaukum prairie floodplains 1e: outwash 1f: Willapa Hills Low density in glacial outwash soils More common on Kitsap peninsula. Kitsap and Moran counties Heavily urbanized area extending northwest from Seattle

13. Noble fir Few trees protected in the Willapa Hills Represents northernmost coastal populations, disjunct Population reduced Potential economic value—Christmas trees and boughs Additional conservation may be warranted Willapa HillsWillapa Hills

14. Ponderosa pine Apparent gaps in the Willamette Valley, Warner Mountains (high elevation), Ft. Lewis Conservation efforts already underway Willamette Valley Ponderosa Pine Conservation Association Warner Mountains high elevation seed orchard Coast range OR17: Fremont and Winema OR18: Warners Puget lowlands-eight adjacent ecoregions 2a: Fraser lowlands 2b: eastern Puget riverine lowlands 2e: eastern Puget uplands 2f: central Puget lowlands 2h: Cowlitz/Chehalis foothills 2i: Cowlitz/Newaukum prairie floodplains 1e: outwash 1f: Willapa Hills Low density in glacial outwash soils More common on Kitsap peninsula. Kitsap and Moran counties Heavily urbanized area extending northwest from Seattle Coast range OR17: Fremont and Winema OR18: Warners Puget lowlands-eight adjacent ecoregions 2a: Fraser lowlands 2b: eastern Puget riverine lowlands 2e: eastern Puget uplands 2f: central Puget lowlands 2h: Cowlitz/Chehalis foothills 2i: Cowlitz/Newaukum prairie floodplains 1e: outwash 1f: Willapa Hills Low density in glacial outwash soils More common on Kitsap peninsula. Kitsap and Moran counties Heavily urbanized area extending northwest from Seattle

15. In situ gene conservation conclusions For five of the eight species examined, genetic resources are well-protected in situ throughout western Oregon and Washington For ponderosa pine, gene conservation activities are in place for the areas least well protected For noble fir and western white pine, additional conservation may be warranted for a few areas

16. Ex situ gene conservation: Survey of existing resources Seed stores Progeny tests Provenance tests Seed orchards Clone banks Number of selections Source location Source elevation Size of test/orchard Age of test/orchard

17. Douglas-fir 1st generation progeny tests Multiple breeding pouplationss; Namkoong has argued is on e of the most effective ways to conserve genetic diversity. Throughout western Oregon and Washington, forestland management organizations are engaged in tree improvement programs for coastal Douglas fir that were founded on the “progressive” system first introduced by Dr. Roy Silen in 1966 (Silen 1966). In this system, commercial seed is initially collected directly from parent trees. These breeding zones span most of the range of coastal Douglas-fir (Figures 1 and 2); the few areas that are not included are well represented in in situ reserves The partitioning of selections into small breeding zones stratifies the genetic resources of the region into local groups that are rarely moved out of their geographic region of origin. Moreover, it essentially creates multiple breeding populations, which notably Namkoong (1976) has argued is one of the most effective ways to conserve genetic diversity. This is especially true since roughly 80% of the selections, at least those included in the NWTIC programs, were not intensively chosen “plus trees”. Rather a “roadside selection” approach was used that emphasizes obtaining a good sample of the better phenotypes (i.e., healthy, vigorous, and well-formed) Multiple breeding pouplationss; Namkoong has argued is on e of the most effective ways to conserve genetic diversity. Throughout western Oregon and Washington, forestland management organizations are engaged in tree improvement programs for coastal Douglas fir that were founded on the “progressive” system first introduced by Dr. Roy Silen in 1966 (Silen 1966). In this system, commercial seed is initially collected directly from parent trees. These breeding zones span most of the range of coastal Douglas-fir (Figures 1 and 2); the few areas that are not included are well represented in in situ reserves The partitioning of selections into small breeding zones stratifies the genetic resources of the region into local groups that are rarely moved out of their geographic region of origin. Moreover, it essentially creates multiple breeding populations, which notably Namkoong (1976) has argued is one of the most effective ways to conserve genetic diversity. This is especially true since roughly 80% of the selections, at least those included in the NWTIC programs, were not intensively chosen “plus trees”. Rather a “roadside selection” approach was used that emphasizes obtaining a good sample of the better phenotypes (i.e., healthy, vigorous, and well-formed)

18. Douglas-fir 2nd generation NWTIC tests

19. Douglas-fir ex situ genetic resources First generation progeny tests represent in excellent gene resource population This population is valuable if breeders decide to screen for new traits, reassess traits of current interest in older trees, or move trees in response to global climate change We advocate maintaining first generation progeny tests

20. Ex situ genetic resources for other species

21. Ex situ genetic resources for other species

22. Ex situ gene conservation conclusions The extent and importance of ex situ genetic resources varies widely among species. Species specific issues drive the collection of ex situ genetic resources First generation progeny tests represent a valuable ex situ genetic resource.

23. Outputs from phase 1 Publications 2 In situ – Aimed at conservation and forestry communities 2 Ex situ – Douglas-fir, other 7 species Presentations and Posters NAFBW, WFGA, CTIA, ESRI, Weyerhaeuser, NWTIC annual meetings GIS Spatial Databases Tree distributions, reserves, seed zones

24. Completing phase 1 requires: Identifying existing genetic resource Western white pine in Puget lowlands Noble fir in the Willapa Hills Formulating management options Publishing remaining manuscripts

25. What next? Inventory and monitor the distribution of forest genetic resources Promote forest gene conservation efforts including specific gene conservation activities and plans Promote and conduct research important to the conservation of forest genetic resources Promote discussion and education of forest gene conservation principles and issues among resource professionals, forest managers, policy makers, and the public. 

26. Opportunities Continued involvement of industry in regional gene conservation Research cooperation with NWTIC, PNWTIRC, PNW Research Station, other regions The Pacific Northwest gene conservation effort to serve as a model for other regions

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