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How do we study history?. Tools, Methods, and Key Terms. How do we know what we know?. Written Sources Digging up clues- (Archaeology) Visual and Audio sources (video, radio) Modern scientific research Maps, Tables, Timelines. Written Sources. Primary Sources. Secondary Sources.

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How do we study history?

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How do we study history

How do we study history?

Tools, Methods, and Key Terms

How do we know what we know

How do we know what we know?

  • Written Sources

  • Digging up clues- (Archaeology)

  • Visual and Audio sources (video, radio)

  • Modern scientific research

  • Maps, Tables, Timelines

Written sources

Written Sources

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

Written after the event

Written by someone who is learning about it from other sources

Interpretation of the event- can include analysis, synthesis, evaluation

  • Written at or around the same time of the event in question

  • Written by or taken from a person associated with the event

  • Can be an interpretation or direct information

Primary sources

Primary Sources



Can still have biases

Can sometimes be forgeries

  • Close to the event in question

  • Opinions of author can tell us more about the time period

Examples of primary sources

Examples of Primary Sources

  • Newspaper articles

  • Videos or radio recordings of event

  • Journals, letters, memoirs, autobiography

  • Official state documents- legal documents, treaties, declarations, etc.

  • Social documents-census, birth-baptism-wedding-death certificates

  • Novels, plays, poetry

  • Economic transactions

  • Political cartoons

  • Interviews

  • What are some other ideas?

Examples of secondary sources

Examples of Secondary Sources?

Examples of secondary sources1

Examples of Secondary Sources

  • Textbooks

  • Newspaper articles (why both ways?)

  • Biographies

  • Interviews (why both ways?)

Primary or secondary source

Primary or Secondary Source?

What can the source tell us about the event?

Why is using this source important?

Primary or secondary

Primary or Secondary


What can this painting tell us about the event or the time it was painted?

Reading critically

Reading Critically

  • Finding or locating:

    • Author- who wrote the source?

    • Audience- who the author is intending to read it?

    • Message – what point are they trying to make?

    • Possible Bias- do they favor one point of view or side?

    • Time period- when was it written?

Apparts strategy

APPARTS Strategy

A – Author

P- Place and Time

P- Prior Knowledge

A- Audience

R- Reason

T- The Main Idea

S- Significance



  • The study of how history is written, studied, and presented (the history of history)

  • Also studies the history of written histories

    • Example- what does the way in which an 1800’s historical marker is written say about that period and how they viewed that event?

  • Examples of history

    • Social history

    • Political history

    • Revisionist history

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