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CHAPTER 41 Animal Hormones. Chapter 41: Animal Hormones. Hormones and Their Actions Hormonal Control of Molting and Development in Insects Vertebrate Endocrine Systems Mechanisms of Hormone Action. Hormones and Their Actions.

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CHAPTER 41 Animal Hormones

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Chapter 41 animal hormones

CHAPTER 41Animal Hormones


Chapter 41 animal hormones

Chapter 41: Animal Hormones

Hormones and Their Actions

Hormonal Control of Molting and Development in Insects

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

Mechanisms of Hormone Action


Hormones and their actions

Hormones and Their Actions

  • Endocrine cells secrete chemical messages called hormones, which bind to receptors on or in target cells. See Figure 1

    3


Hormones and their actions1

Hormones and Their Actions

  • Most hormones diffuse through extracellular fluids, are picked up by the blood, and distributed throughout the body.

  • Some diffuse to targets near the secretion site.

  • Autocrine hormones influence the cell that secretes them

  • Paracrine hormones influence nearby cells. Review Figure 41.1

    4


Figure 41 1

figure 41-01.jpg

Figure 41.1

Figure 41.1


Hormones and their actions2

Hormones and Their Actions

  • Hormones cause different responses in different target cells.

    6


Hormones and their actions3

Hormones and Their Actions

  • The chemical structures of hormones have changed little through evolution, but their functions have changed dramatically.

    7


Hormones and their actions4

Hormones and Their Actions

  • Hormones may be secreted by single cells or by cells organized into discrete endocrine glands. Review Figure 41.2

    8


Figure 41 2

figure 41-02.jpg

Figure 41.2

Figure 41.2


Hormonal control of molting and development in insects

Hormonal Control of Molting and Development in Insects

  • Insects molt their exoskeletons to grow.

  • Two diffusible substances, brain hormone and ecdysone, control molting. Review Figure 41.3

    10


Figure 41 3 part 1

figure 41-03a.jpg

Figure 41.3 – Part 1

Figure 41.3 – Part 1


Figure 41 3 part 2

figure 41-03b.jpg

Figure 41.3 – Part 2

Figure 41.3 – Part 2


Hormonal control of molting and development in insects1

Hormonal Control of Molting and Development in Insects

  • Juvenile hormone, another diffusible substance, prevents maturation so that juvenile instars molt into bigger juvenile instars.

  • When juvenile hormone level falls low enough, the juvenile molts into the adult form.

    13


Hormonal control of molting and development in insects2

Hormonal Control of Molting and Development in Insects

  • Some insects go through complete metamorphosis.

  • When juvenile hormone drops to a low level, the larval form becomes a pupa.

  • Because no juvenile hormone is secreted during pupation, the pupa molts into an adult. Review Figure 41.4

    14


Figure 41 4

figure 41-04.jpg

Figure 41.4

Figure 41.4


Vertebrate endocrine systems

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • Vertebrates have nine endocrine glands that secrete many hormones. Review Figure 41.2, Table 41.1

    16


Table 41 1 part 1

table 41-01a.jpg

Table 41.1 – Part 1

Table 41.1 – Part 1


Table 41 1 part 2

table 41-01b.jpg

Table 41.1 – Part 2

Table 41.1 – Part 2


Table 41 1 part 3

table 41-01c.jpg

Table 41.1 – Part 3

Table 41.1 – Part 3


Table 41 1 part 4

table 41-01d.jpg

Table 41.1 – Part 4

Table 41.1 – Part 4


Vertebrate endocrine systems1

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • The pituitary gland is divided into two parts.

  • The anterior pituitary develops from embryonic mouth tissue

  • The posterior pituitary develops from the brain.

    21


Vertebrate endocrine systems2

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • The posterior pituitary secretes the neurohormones vasopressin and oxytocin. Review Figure 41.5

    22


Figure 41 5

figure 41-05.jpg

Figure 41.5

Figure 41.5


Vertebrate endocrine systems3

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • The anterior pituitary secretes:

  • Tropic hormones (thyrotropin, adrenocorticotropin, and two gonadotropins), and

  • Growth hormone, prolactin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, endorphins, and enkephalins.

    24


Vertebrate endocrine systems4

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • The anterior pituitary is controlled by neurohormones produced by cells in the hypothalamus and transported through portal blood vessels to the anterior pituitary. Review Figure 41.7, Table 41.2

    25


Figure 41 7

figure 41-07.jpg

Figure 41.7

Figure 41.7


Table 41 2

table 41-02.jpg

Table 41.2

Table 41.2


Vertebrate endocrine systems5

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • Hormone release in the hypothalamus/pituitary/endocrine gland axis is controlled by many feedback loops. Review Figure 41.8

    28


Figure 41 8

figure 41-08.jpg

Figure 41.8

Figure 41.8


Vertebrate endocrine systems6

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • The thyroid gland is controlled by thyrotropin and secretes thyroxine, which controls cell metabolism. Review Figure 41.9

    30


Figure 41 9

figure 41-09.jpg

Figure 41.9

Figure 41.9


Vertebrate endocrine systems7

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • Calcium levels in the blood are regulated by two hormones.

  • Calcitonin, produced by the thyroid, lowers blood calcium.

  • Parathormone, produced by the parathyroid glands, raises it. Review Figure 41.10

    32


Figure 41 10

figure 41-10.jpg

Figure 41.10

Figure 41.10


Vertebrate endocrine systems8

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • The pancreas secretes three hormones.

  • Insulin stimulates glucose uptake by cells and lowers blood glucose

  • Glucagon raises blood glucose

  • Somatostatin slows nutrient absorption rate from the gut.

    34


Vertebrate endocrine systems9

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • The adrenal gland has two portions.

  • The hormones of the adrenal medulla, epinephrine and norepinephrine, stimulate the liver to supply glucose to the blood, as well as other fight-or-flight reactions. Review Figure 41.11

    35


Figure 41 11

figure 41-11.jpg

Figure 41.11

Figure 41.11


Vertebrate endocrine systems10

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • The adrenal cortex produces three classes of corticosteroids:

    • glucocorticoids

    • mineralocorticoids

    • small amounts of sex steroids. Review Figure 41.12

      37


Figure 41 12

figure 41-12.jpg

Figure 41.12

Figure 41.12


Vertebrate endocrine systems11

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid that stimulates the kidney to conserve sodium and to excrete potassium.

    39


Vertebrate endocrine systems12

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • Cortisol is a glucocorticoid that decreases glucose utilization by most cells.

    40


Vertebrate endocrine systems13

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • Sex hormones are produced by the gonads in response to tropic hormones.

  • Sex hormones control sexual development, secondary sexual characteristics, and reproductive functions. Review Figure 41.13

    41


Figure 41 13

figure 41-13.jpg

Figure 41.13

Figure 41.13


Vertebrate endocrine systems14

Vertebrate Endocrine Systems

  • The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in controlling biological rhythms and photoperiodism. Review Figure 41.14

    43


Figure 41 14

figure 41-14.jpg

Figure 41.14

Figure 41.14


Mechanisms of hormone action

Mechanisms of Hormone Action

  • The responses of a cell to a hormone depend on what receptors it has and what signal transduction pathways those receptors activate. Review Table 41.3

    45


Table 41 3

table 41-03.jpg

Table 41.3

Table 41.3


Mechanisms of hormone action1

Mechanisms of Hormone Action

  • Receptors for water-soluble hormones are on the cell surface, and receptors for lipid-soluble hormones are inside the cell.

    47


Mechanisms of hormone action2

Mechanisms of Hormone Action

  • Cell sensitivity to hormones can be altered by up- or downregulation of the receptors in that cell.

    48


Mechanisms of hormone action3

Mechanisms of Hormone Action

  • Sensitivity and time course of hormone response depend on many factors

    • receptor numbers

    • properties of signal transduction pathways

    • other hormones

    • binding of the hormone to carrier proteins

    • elimination of the hormone through degradation and excretion.

      49


Mechanisms of hormone action4

Mechanisms of Hormone Action

  • Important tools for characterizing hormone action are dose–response curves and measurements of half-life. Review Figure 41.15

    50


Figure 41 15

figure 41-15.jpg

Figure 41.15

Figure 41.15


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