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An Introduction. to the Human Body:. Ch 1. Anatomy: Study of the structure of body parts Gross- large body structures Regional- all parts in a specific region Developmental- structural changes over a life time Embryology- developmental changes that occur before birth.

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An Introduction

to the Human Body:

Ch 1


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  • Anatomy:

  • Study of the structure of

  • body parts

    • Gross- large body structures

    • Regional- all parts in

    • a specific region

    • Developmental- structural

    • changes over a life time

    • Embryology- developmental

    • changes that occur before birth

  • Physiology:

  • Study of the body’s function

    • Cardiovascular

    • Renal

    • Reproductive

    • Neurophysiology

Complementarity of structure and function


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Levels of Structural Organization

  • Atoms

  • Molecules

  • Organelles

  • Cells

  • Tissues

  • Organs

  • Organ Systems

  • Organism


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DNA molecule

carbon

atom

organelle

cell

tissue

organism

organ system

organ

Levels of Structural Organization


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Basic Life Processes

  • Metabolism

  • Responsiveness

  • Movement

  • Growth

  • Differentiation

  • Reproduction


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Metabolism

  • The sum total of the chemical processes that occur in living organisms, resulting in growth, production of energy, elimination of waste material, etc.

  • Anabolism- build up of complex molecules

  • Catabolism- break down of complex molecules


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Cellular Respiration

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy


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Homeostasis

  • All organisms must maintain a constant internal environment to function properly

    • Temperature

    • pH

    • Salinity

    • Fluid levels


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Homeostasis

Relatively stable internal environment


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Negative Feedback

vs

Positive Feedback


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Feedback Systems

  • Receptor

  • Control center

  • Effector


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Negative Feedback

Body Temperature Regulation


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Negative Feedback

Blood Sugar Levels


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Positive Feedback

1

Break or tearoccurs in bloodvessel wall.

Positive feedbackcycle is initiated.

3

2

Releasedchemicalsattract moreplatelets.

Plateletsadhere to siteand releasechemicals.

Positivefeedbackloop

Feedback cycle endswhen plug is formed.

4

Platelet plugforms.



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Homeostasic Imbalance

Moderate imbalance:

  • Disease

  • Disorder

Severe imbalance:

  • Death


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Hair

Nails

Skin

(a) Integumentary System

Forms the external body covering, and

protects deeper tissues from injury.

Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses

cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.)

receptors and sweat and oil glands.

Figure 1.3a


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Bones

Joint

(b) Skeletal System

Protects and supports body organs,

and provides a framework the muscles

use to cause movement. Blood cells

are formed within bones. Bones store

minerals.

Figure 1.3b


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Skeletal

muscles

(c)Muscular System

Allows manipulation of the environment,

locomotion, and facial expression. Main-

tains posture, and produces heat.

Figure 1.3c


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Brain

Nerves

Spinal

cord

(d) Nervous System

As the fast-acting control system of

the body, it responds to internal and

external changes by activating

appropriate muscles and glands.

Figure 1.3d


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Pineal gland

Pituitary

gland

Thyroid

gland

Thymus

Adrenal

gland

Pancreas

Testis

Ovary

(e) Endocrine System

Glands secrete hormones that regulate

processes such as growth, reproduction,

and nutrient use (metabolism) by body

cells.

Figure 1.3e


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Heart

Blood

vessels

(f) Cardiovascular System

Blood vessels transport blood,

whichcarries oxygen, carbon

dioxide,nutrients, wastes, etc.

The heart pumpsblood.

Figure 1.3f


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Red bone

marrow

Thymus

Lymphatic

vessels

Thoracic

duct

Spleen

Lymph

nodes

(g) Lymphatic System/Immunity

Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels

and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris

in the lymphatic stream. Houses white

blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in

immunity. The immune response mounts

the attack against foreign substances

within the body.

Figure 1.3g


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Nasal

cavity

Pharynx

Bronchus

Larynx

Trachea

Lung

(h) Respiratory System

Keeps blood constantly supplied with

oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.

The gaseous exchanges occur through

the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.

Figure 1.3h


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Oral cavity

Esophagus

Liver

Stomach

Small

intestine

Large

intestine

Rectum

Anus

(i) Digestive System

Breaks down food into absorbable

units that enter the blood for

distribution to body cells. Indigestible

foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.

Figure 1.3i


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Kidney

Ureter

Urinary

bladder

Urethra

(j) Urinary System

Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the

body. Regulates water, electrolyte and

acid-base balance of the blood.

Figure 1.3j


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Mammary

glands (in

breasts)

Prostate

gland

Ovary

Penis

Ductus

deferens

Testis

Uterine

tube

Scrotum

Uterus

Vagina

(l) Female Reproductive System

(k) Male Reproductive System

Overall function is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex

hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female

reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining

female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus.

Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn.

Figure 1.3k-l




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Body Planes

Superior

Medial & Lateral

Frontal plane

oblique

Distal

Transverse plane

Proximal

Posterior

Inferior

Anterior

Midsagittal

plane



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Membranes

  • Organs surrounded by double layer membrane called serosa or serous membrane

  • Composed mostly of simple squamous epithelia and a little connective tissue

  • Filled with serous fluid- function reduce friction

  • Parietal (outer) vs Visceral (inner)-- both secrete serous fluid

  • heart: parietal pericardiumvisceral pericardium

  • lungs: parietal pleuravisceral pleura

  • abdominopelvic: parietal peritoneumvisceral peritoneum

  • Diseases:

  • pleurisyinflammation of pleura

  • peritonitisinflammation of peritonea

  • pericarditis inflammation of pericardia

  • inflammation - less serous fluid



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Membranes

Mucous


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Membranes

Serous: pericardium, pleura, peritoneum

Parietal pericardium

Serous fluid

Visceral pericardium


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Membranes

Cutaneous


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Membranes

Synovial



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Abdominopelvic Regions

  • Hypogastric- large intestine, sm intestine, bladder

  • Umbilical- sm and lg intestine

  • Epigastric- stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas

  • Right hypochondriac- liver

  • Left hypochondriac- stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas

  • Right lumbar- large and small intestine

  • Left lumbar- large and small intestine

  • Right iliac- large intestine, cecum

  • Left iliac- large intestine



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Ancient Greece

  • Hippocrates (460 – 370? B.C.)

  • Greek physician

  • Diseases have natural causes

  • Rejected view that disease caused by evil spirits

  • Believed that the brain was area of higher thought and emotion, not heart

  • Program for good health: rest, good nutrition, and exercise.

  • Started “Western Medicine”


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Hippocrates’ Four Humors

  • Blood: considered to be made by the liver.

  • Phlegm: associated with the lungs.

  • Yellow bile: associated with the gall bladder.

  • Black bile: associated with the spleen.


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Imbalances of the Humors Cause Disease

  • Sanguine:Disease, excess blood

  • Phlegmatic:Disease, excess phlegm

  • Choleric:Disease, excess yellow bile

  • Melancholic:Disease, excess black bile


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Roman Times

  • Galen (130 - 200 A.D.)

  • Anatomy & Physiology

  • disease resulted from an internal imbalance of the four humors

  • Mistakes in understanding circulation

  • Research based on ape dissection

  • Textbook used for 1000 years


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Dark Ages- 200 to 1200 A.D.

  • Sad time

  • Little new knowledge

  • Taboo against dissecting human cadavers continued

  • Avoided actual involvement

  • Authority prevails


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Renaissance

  • da Vinci(1452-1515)

  • Anatomy & Physiology


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Renaissance

  • Vesalius (1514-1564)

  • Anatomy & Physiology

  • Followed Galen’s writings, but later found he was wrong

Vesalius dissects a female cadaver in his anatomy lab


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Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius

A late thirteenth-century illustration of the venous system within the body.


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Medieval Human Anatomy Before Vesalius

This early representation (c. 1300) of a dissection shows a surgeon and a monk.





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Vesalius’ Images

The female pelvic anatomy. From Vesalius's De Corporis Humani Fabrica, 1543.



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William Harvey

1578 - 1657

Developed an accurate theory of how the heart and circulatory system operated






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Arteries, Veins&Capillaries


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Leeches and Maggots make a comeback

1600’s Medicine: Leeches

A prescription leech at the Harborview Medical Center pharmacy.


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Medical Imaging

PET

CT

MRI

Ultrasound


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Inquiry

  • Locate each region on your own body, and then identify it by its common name and the corresponding anatomical descriptive form.

  • What are the four types of planes that may be passed through the body?

  • Is the radius proximal to the humerus?

  • Is the esophagus anterior to the trachea?

  • Are the ribs superficial to the lungs?

  • Is the urinary bladder medial to the ascending colon?

  • Is the sternum lateral to the descending colon?

  • The physician plans to perform an appendectomy. In what plane will the incision be made? What body cavity will be entered for the surgery?


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Inquiry

  • Distinguish between negative and positive feedback.

  • What is homeostasis?

  • What organs would you find in the left iliac region?

  • Galen’s textbook was based on research of ______ not humans.

  • What did Velsalius discover?

  • Leeuwenhoek, Hooke, and Galileo invented the____.

  • List 4 modern “non-evasive” technologies that allow us to look in the body.

  • What are leeches and maggots used for?

  • The pericardium, pleura and peritoneum refer to ________.


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