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BIO FUELS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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BIO FUELS. Prof. Dr. Fatma Ashour 2009. THINK OUTSIDE THE BARREL …. THINK GREEN. Bio. Biological Resources. Fuel. Energy Source. Bio. Fuel. Energy Source from Biological Resources. Meaning of Biofuel. Biodiesel. Feedstock (Raw Material). Production. Reaction. Washing. Separator.

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Prof. Dr. FatmaAshour




  • Bio

  • Biological Resources

  • Fuel

  • Energy Source

  • Bio

  • Fuel

  • Energy Source from Biological Resources

Meaning of Biofuel


Feedstock (Raw Material)







Feedstock (Raw Material)


Cellulosic Ethanol

Algae Diesel


  • Energy Crops

  • Agricultural and

    Forestry Wastes

  • Industrial and

    Consumer Wastes



Biogas Production Steps


BTL (Biomass-to-Liquid)

Biofuels vs. Fossil Fuels

Biofuels: Strengths & Opportunities

  • Fossil fuels contribute to global warming by increasing GHG emissions

    Biofuels reduce GHG emissions (closed carbon dioxide cycle)



Biofuels: Strengths & Opportunities

  • Energy Security:

    • Decrease dependency on crude oil

    • Decrease imports of crude oil

    • Energy diversification

  • Renewable

  • Less toxic

  • Sustainable use of otherwise problematic waste products

  • Biofuels: Strengths & Opportunities

    • Economic Benefits

      • Economic use of wasteland

      • Useful co-products

      • Carbon Credit Opportunities

      • Additional distribution channel for agricultural products

      • Decentralized production and thus strengthen rural economies

    Biofuels: Weaknesses & Threats

    • The biofuel market is a relatively new market

    • Feedstock production of biofuels is in competition with food production

    • Feedstock production may be land consuming

    • Feedstock production largely depends on many vagaries of nature

    Biofuels: Weaknesses & Threats

    • Economic viability: Fuel prices largely depend on the sale of co-products

    • Lower energy content per volume than fossil fuels

    Special Advantages of Biodiesel

    • The properties of biodiesel (viscosity, ignition properties) are similar to those of fossil diesel.

    • Cetane number and lubricating effect of biodiesel are significantly higher than fossil diesel.

    • The toxicity of biodiesel is lower compared to fossil diesel.

    • Biodiesel can be blended with petrodiesel at any ratio.

    Special Advantages of Bioethanol

    • Ethanol has a high octane number.

    • Ethanol contains 35% oxygen which reduces particulate and NOx emissions from combustion when compared to the combustion of petrol.

    • Combustion of ethanol results in low CO emissions.

    • Bioethanol can be blended with gasoline at any ratio.

    • Ethanol contains no sulfur, causing no emissions of sulfur oxides.

    Biofuels Market

    The Effect of Moderating Oil Prices

    • At oil prices over US$50 per barrel, biofuels are a cost-effective option to displace conventional gasoline and diesel fuel for transport.

    • At world crude oil prices of US$80 to $US100 per barrel, biofuels from a wide variety of cellulosic feedstock, including crop residues and forest residues as well as crops that are not common today, would be cost-competitive.

    • Since biofuels can be produced from many different feedstock that are grown under very different conditions in many different places, there are considerable cost differentials and thus significant opportunities for biofuels trade

    International Tendencies (Brazil)

    International Tendencies (Africa)

    • Bioethanol Production Africa 2006: 606,000 liters = 1.2% global production (US + Brazil: 75% global production)

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