Warm up
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 50

Warm Up: PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 90 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Warm Up:. Review for Chapter 4 Test . After Test:. Free Write: What do you think of when you hear the word “Rome”? Describe any ideas/impressions you have of the city of Rome and the Roman empire. Chapter 5. Age of Empires: Rome and Han China 753 B.C.E.-600 C.E.

Download Presentation

Warm Up:

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Warm up

Warm Up:

Review for Chapter 4 Test


After test

After Test:

Free Write:

What do you think of when you hear the word “Rome”?

Describe any ideas/impressions you have of the city of Rome and the Roman empire


Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Age of Empires: Rome and Han China

753 B.C.E.-600 C.E.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

  • Geography and Resources

    I. Physical Geography

  • Peninsula shaped like a boot

  • Centrally located in the Mediterranean

  • Mountains

    -Alps to the North

    -Apennine Mountains- run like a backbone the length of Italy

    -Less rugged than mountains in Greece

  • Large fertile plains:

    -Po Valley in the North

    -Western Italy

  • Plains supported farming, large populations


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e1

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

2. Human Geography

Latins

  • Settled in 7 small villages along Tiber River starting around 800 BCE

  • Villages would grow and merge into Rome, the city on 7 hills.

    Greeks

  • Greek colonist settled in Southern Italy and Sicily

    Etruscans

  • Ruled much of central Italy, including Rome itself

    Cultural Diffusion

  • Romans adapted Etruscan alphabet, which was based on the Greek alphabet

  • Romans adapted Etruscan building techniques, including using the arch

  • Roman Gods were based on Greek and Etruscan Gods.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e2

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

B. A Republic of Farmers

  • Early Government

  • According to legend, Rome was ruled by seven kings between 753 b.c.e. and 507 b.c.e.

  • Members of the Senatorial class deposed the last king, and declared a republic

  • Republic- “public possession”


Warm up1

Warm Up:

Are there different classes of people in the United States?

(Economic, Political, Social, Education)


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e3

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

2. Roman Republic (507-31 B.C.E.)

Two Social Classes

  • Patricians- members of the land holding upper class

  • Plebeians- farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders who made up the majority of the population


What are the three branches of government in the united states

What are the three branches of government in the United States?


American system

American System

Based on balance of powers/functions


Roman system

Roman System

Based on balance of power of interest s


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e4

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

2. Continued

  • Conflict arose between Plebeians and Patricians

  • A law code, the Twelve Tables was created to protect the plebeians from arbitrary decisions by judges


Read the twelve tables

Read- The Twelve Tables

Write 5 of these laws into your own words.

Based on the laws of the Romans, what can we learn about the values of their society?


Warm up2

Warm Up:

Based on the laws of the Romans, what can we learn about the values of their society?


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e5

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

3. Roman Family

  • The Roman family consisted of several generations living under the absolute authority of the oldest living male,

  • the paterfamilias.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e6

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

4. Roman Society

  • Society was hierarchical.

  • Families and individuals were tied together by patron/client relationships

  • institutionalized inequality and gave both sides of the relationship reason to cooperate and to support the status quo.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e7

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

5. Women

  • Roman women had relatively more freedom than Greek women,

  • their legal status was still that of a child,

  • subordinate to the paterfamilias of her own or her husband’s family.

  • Eventually procedures evolved which made it possible for some women to become independent after the death of their fathers.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e8

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

6. Religion

  • Polytheistic

  • Anthropomorphic gods

  • Chief gods, including Jupiter (Zeus) and Mars (Ares) based on Greek gods

  • Proper performance of ritual ensured that the gods continued to favor the Roman state.

  • PaxDeorum – Peace of the Gods


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e9

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

C. Expansion in Italy and the Mediterranean

  • Reasons for Expansion

  • Greed and aggressiveness,

  • the need for consuls to prove themselves as military commanders during their single year in office,

  • a constant fear of being attacked.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e10

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

2. Conquest of Italy

  • During the first stage of expansion, Rome conquered the rest of Italy (by 290 b.c.e.).

  • Rome won the support of the people of Italy by granting them Roman citizenship.

  • As citizens, these people then had to provide soldiers for the military.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e11

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

3. Conquest of Mediterranean and France

  • Rome first defeated Carthage to gain control over the western Mediterranean and Sicily, Sardinia, and Spain (264–202 b.c.e.).

  • between 200 and 30 b.c.e., Rome defeated the Hellenistic kingdoms to take over the lands of the Eastern Mediterranean.

  • Between 59 and 51 b.c.e., Gaius Julius Caesar conquered the Celts of Gaul (France).


Roman expansion

Roman Expansion


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e12

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

4. Roman Rule

  • The Romans used local elite groups to administer and tax the various provinces of their rapidly expanding and far-flung empire.

  • A Roman governors, served a single one-year term in office,

  • supervised the local administrators.

  • This system was inadequate and prone to corruption.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e13

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

D.The Failure of the Republic

  • Economic Changes

  • As Rome expanded, the social and economic bases of the Roman republic in Italy were undermined.

  • men from independent farming families were forced to devote their time to military service,

  • large landowners bought up their land to create great estates called latifundia.

  • This meant both a decline in Rome’s source of soldiers and a decline in food production,

  • latifundia owners preferred to grow cash crops like grapes rather than staple crops such as wheat.


Warm up3

Warm Up:

How did the growth of latifundia impact ancient Rome?


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e14

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

  • Slave Labor and Growth of Cities

  • Slave labor replaced the labor of peasants in the latifundia,

  • Peasants drifted into the cities where they formed a poor and unemployed underclass.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e15

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

  • Military

  • As the independent farming family that had been the traditional source of soldiers disappeared,

  • Roman commanders built their armies from men from the underclass who tended to give their loyalty, not to the Roman state, but to their commander.

  • This led to generals taking control of politics, to civil wars, and finally to the end of the republican system of government.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e16

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

  • End of the Republic

  • Julius Caesar’s grandnephew Octavian (also known as Augustus) took power in 31 b.c.e.,

  • reorganized the Roman government,

  • ruled as a military dictator.

  • After Augustus died, several members of his family succeeded him.

  • The position of emperor was not necessarily hereditary; in the end, the army chose emperors.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e17

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

E.An Urban Empire

1.Cities and Towns

  • About 80 percent of the 50 to 60 million people of the Roman Empire were rural farmers

  • the empire was administered through and for a network of cities and towns.

  • urban empire.

  • Rome had about a million residents,

  • other large cities (Alexandria, Antioch, and Carthage) had several hundred thousand each,

  • many Roman towns had populations of several thousand.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e18

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

2. Social Class in Rome

  • In Rome, the upper classes lived in elegant, well-built, well-appointed houses;

  • many aristocrats also owned country villas.

  • The poor lived in dark, dank, fire-prone wooden tenements in squalid slums built in the low-lying parts of the city.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e19

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

3. Provincial Towns

  • imitated Rome both in urban planning and in urban administration.

  • The local elite, who served the interests of Rome, dominated town councils.

  • The local elite also served their communities by using their wealth to construct amenities such as:

  • aqueducts, baths, theatres, gardens, temples, and other public works and entertainment projects.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e20

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

4. Rural Life

  • Rural life in the Roman Empire involved lots of hard work and very little entertainment.

  • Rural people had little contact with representatives of the government.

  • By the early centuries c.e., absentee landlords who lived in the cities owned most rural land,

  • while the land was worked by tenant farmers supervised by hired foremen.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e21

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

5. Trade

  • Manufacture and trade flourished under the “paxromana.” = Roman Peace

  • Grain had to be imported to feed the huge city of Rome.

  • Rome and the Italian towns (and later, provincial centers) exported glass, metalwork, pottery, and other manufactures to the provinces.

  • Romans also imported Chinese silk and Indian and Arabian spices.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e22

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

6. Romanization

  • Spread of Roman culture

  • In the western part of the Empire, the Latin language, Roman clothing, and the Roman lifestyle were adopted by local people.

  • Greek language and culture dominated the Eastern Mediterranean

  • As time passed, Roman emperors gradually extended Roman citizenship to all free male adult inhabitants of the empire.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e23

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

F.The Rise of Christianity

  • Jesus

  • Judaea, the homeland of Jesus was put under Roman rule in 6 C.E.

  • Jesus lived in a society marked by resentment against Roman rule,

  • which had inspired the belief that a Messiah would arise to liberate the Jews.

  • When Jesus sought to reform Jewish religious practices,

  • the Jewish authorities in Jerusalem turned him over to the Roman governor for execution.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e24

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

2. Early Christianity

  • After the execution, Jesus’ disciples continued to spread his teachings;

  • they also spread their belief that Jesus had been resurrected.

  • At this point, the target of their proselytizing was their fellow Jews.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e25

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

3. Spread of Christianity

  • The target of proselytizing changed from Jews to non-Jews in the 40s–70s c.e.

  • First, Paul of Tarsus, an Anatolian Jew, discovered that non-Jews (gentiles) were much more receptive to the teachings of Jesus than Jews were.

  • Second, a Jewish revolt in Judaea (66 c.e.) and the subsequent Roman reconquest destroyed the original Jewish Christian community in Jerusalem.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e26

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

  • Development of the Church

  • Christianity grew slowly for two centuries,

  • developing a hierarchy of priests and bishops,

  • hammering out a commonly accepted theological doctrine,

  • resisting the persecution of Roman officials.

  • By the late third century, Christians were a sizeable minority in the Roman Empire.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e27

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

5. Early Christians

  • Persecuted by Romans

  • As monotheist, they refused to worship the emperor as a god

  • Seen as a sign of disloyalty

  • Attracted converts among:

  • Women, slaves, urban poor


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e28

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

6. Religion in the Empire

  • The expansion of Christianity in the Roman Empire came at a time when Romans were increasingly dissatisfied with their traditional religion.

  • This dissatisfaction inspired Romans to become interested in a variety of “mystery cults” and universal creeds that had their origins in the eastern Mediterranean


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e29

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

G.Technology and Transformation

  • Roman Engineering

  • The Romans were expert military and civil engineers.

    Among their accomplishments were:

  • bridge-building, ballistic weapons, elevated and underground aqueducts, the use of arches and domes, and the invention of concrete, an expansive network of roads.


Aqueducts

Aqueducts

Use of arches allow even distribution of great weight without thick supporting walls


Pantheon

Pantheon

  • Concrete Dome reaches over 14 stories in height

  • Remains the worlds tallest unreinforced concrete dome


Roman roads

Roman Roads

“All roads lead to Rome”


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e30

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

  • Roman Military

  • Following Augustus’ death, the army was organized primarily for defense.

  • The Rhine-Danube frontier was protected by a string of forts;

  • long walls protected the frontiers of North Africa and Britain.

  • On the eastern frontier, the Romans fought for centuries against the Parthians.

    -Neither side made any significant gains.


Hadrian s wall

Hadrian's Wall


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e31

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

  • Third Century Crisis (235-284 C.E.)

    The symptoms of this crisis were:

  • frequent change of rulers

    -20 emperors over this period

  • raids by German tribesmen from across the Rhine-Danube frontier,


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e32

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

4. Economy

  • Rome’s economy was undermined by the high cost of defense,

  • Reduction in amount of gold and silver in coins led to inflation,

  • Reversion to a barter economy,

  • Disruption of trade

  • disappearance of the municipal aristocracy of the provincial cities,

  • movement of population out of the cities and back into the rural areas.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e33

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

5. Reforms of Diocletian (r. 284-305 C.E.)

  • Saved the Roman state by instituting a series of reforms that included:

  • Price controls to end inflation

  • regulations that required certain people to stay in their professions and to train a son to succeed them.

    Side effects:

  • black market and a growing feeling of resentment against the government.


I rome s mediterranean empire 753 b c e 330 c e34

I.Rome’s Mediterranean Empire, 753 b.c.e.–330 c.e.

6. Constantine (r. 306–37 c.e.)

  • Edict of Milan formally ended the persecution of Christians

  • Supported the Christian church,

  • contributed to the rise of Christianity as the official religion of the empire.

  • Transferred the capital of the empire from Rome to the eastern city of Byzantium,

  • renamed Constantinople.


  • Login