This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 130

第五章 酶 化 学 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 88 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

第五章 酶 化 学. 5.1 酶的概述. 酶( enzyme ) :是一类由生物细胞产生的,绝大部分是以蛋白质为主要成分的生物催化剂。 1878 年, W•Kuhne 提出“酶”这个名称。 1897 年, Hans Buchner 和 Eduard Buchner 成功地用不含细胞的酵母提取液实现了发酵。 1926 年, Sumner 第一次从刀豆中提出了脲酶结晶,并证明具有蛋白质性质。. 1995 年, Jack W. Szostak 研究室首先报道了具有 DNA 连接酶活性 DNA 片段,称为脱氧核酶 (deoxyribozyme) 。.

Download Presentation

第五章 酶 化 学

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


4441665


4441665

5.1

  • enzyme

  • 1878WKuhne

  • 1897Hans BuchnerEduard Buchner

  • 1926Sumner


1995 jack w szostak dna dna deoxyribozyme

1995Jack W. SzostakDNADNA(deoxyribozyme)

1982,CechRNA(

1983,AltmanRNaseP

1986Lernen


4441665

  • 5.1.1

  • 1.

    • : ,

    • : ,

    • :

    • :

  • 2.

    • + - +

      • L--


4441665

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

: EC1.1.1.27

  • 3.

    • EC--


4441665

  • (1).- Oxidoreductase

    • (Lactate)

  • (2). Transferase

    • :


4441665

  • (3). hydrolase

    • :(Lipase)

  • (4). Lyase

    • :

AB A+B


4441665

P

O

C

H

O

C

H

P

2

2

O

C

H

O

H

2

O

H

H

H

O

H

H

O

H

H

H

H

O

H

O

H

O

H

H

H

O

H

G

-

6

-

P

F

-

6

-

P

  • (5). Isomerase

    • :6-

  • (6). Ligase or Synthetase

    • :


4441665

  • 4.

    (1)


4441665


4441665


4441665

  • Mn2

  • Fe2+/Fe3+ -

  • Cu+/Cu2+

  • Co2+

  • Zn2+ -NH3-RS2

  • Ni2 -SH


4441665

(2)

a


5 1 2

5.1.2


4441665

    • 1.


4441665

E + S ES E + P


4441665

  • 2.


4441665

aD-


4441665

  • L-


4441665

  • 3.

  • 4.

  • 5.


4441665

5.2

  • 5.2.1


4441665

  • 1 Binding site


2 catalytic site

2 catalytic site


4441665


4441665

3 Regulatory site


4441665

4.


4441665


4441665


4441665

  • 5.2.2

  • 1.

1894Fischer


4441665

1959Koshland


4441665

  • 1

  • 2.


4441665


4441665

  • 2


4441665

RCH3 RH315

-CH3


4441665

3:


4441665

4

  • H+H+


4441665

His


4441665

5


4441665

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

  • 5.2.3zymogen activation


4441665

1

2

3


4441665

5.3

  • 5.3.1


4441665

  • 1.

    • 1913MichaelisMenten-


4441665


4441665

  • 2. Km

    • Kmmol/l

      • Km

        • Km,110-810-1 mol/l


4441665

  • :KmKm

    • Km

  • Km


4441665

Km0.025/100/


4441665

  • 3.

  • Lineweaver-Burk


4441665

4.

(sequential)

(ping-pong)


5 3 2

5.3.2

  • [S]>>[E][E]v


5 3 3 ph

5.3.3 pH

  • pH

  • pH


4441665

RNA


5 3 4

5.3.4

ES


5 3 5

5.3.5

  • activator

    • 1.

      • K+Na+Mg2+Zn2+Fe2+Ca2+

      • Cl-Br-I-

    • 2.

      • EDTA

    • 3.


5 3 6

5.3.6

  • inhibitor


4441665

Fe2+


4441665

1


4441665


4441665


4441665

1[I]KmKm/Vmax Vmax

2Km[I]

3[I][S]


4441665

  • 2


4441665


4441665

1[I]KmVmaxKm/Vmax

2Vmax[I]

3[I][S]


4441665

  • 3


4441665

1[I]KmVmaxKm/Vmax

2KmVmax[I]

3[I] [S]


4441665

Km Vm

Km Vm

Km Vm


4441665


4441665

5.4

  • 5.4.1

    • 1.

    • 2.

    • 3.

      • 04

      • EDTA


5 4 2

5.4.2

  • enzyme activity


4441665

    • IU1

      katal1972katal(kat)1kat

      1kat = 60106 IU

      1nkat = 0.06IU

      1IU = 16.67nkat


4441665

    • = /

    • ()


4441665

  • 20pH=7 6g/L2mg

  • 1U= 1g/h

  • 8g/h

  • 8U

  • 4U/mg


4441665

1ugM920000.5umol/min

500U/mg

0.560 1 92000 766.67/s


4441665

[P]

(t)

1

2

3pH

4[S]>>[E]


4441665

1

2


4441665

+ NAD+ + NADH + H+

NADHNADPH340nm340nm

10-9mol/L


4441665

TyrTrpPheNADHNADPHFMNFAD

10-12mol/L


4441665

+ ATP -6- + ADP

G-6-P

-6- + NADP -6- + NADPH + H+

3

P1, P2


4441665

5.5

  • 5.5.1rugulatory enzyme


4441665

  • 1. allosteric enzyme

22

1

2

3


4441665


4441665

1-

2-S

3-


4441665

Rs([S]90%Vm/[S]10%Vm)Rs818181

Hilllog(v/(Vm-v))log[S]Hill111


4441665


4441665


2 covalent regulatory enzyme

2.covalent regulatory enzyme

  • covalent modificationchemical modification


4441665

1

2

3

4-.


4441665


4441665

  • 5.5.2isoenzyme

  • LDH


4441665

LDH


4441665

5

4

1

2

3

1

2

7

3

6

5

4

  • 5.5.3multienzyme system


4441665

  • 5.5.4immobilized enzyme


4441665

1

2

3

4


4441665

1

2

3

4


4441665

5.6

()

1.

2.

A

3.

4.


4441665

()

1.

200

2.

3.


4441665

5.7

80


4441665


4441665


4441665

(DOPA)

()

()


4441665

1, L-D-

2

3pH

5.8


4441665

  • 4

  • 5


4441665


4441665


4441665


4441665

  • 6pH


4441665

  • pH

  • 1


4441665


4441665

1.

2.

3.

4.Km

5.pH

6.


4441665

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.


4441665

13.nKmKm

14.0.9Vmax0.1Vmax[S]0.9/[S]0.1

15.[S]=0.25KmVmax

16.

17.


4441665

18.

  • A B

  • C D

    19.

  • AVmaxKm

  • BVmaxKm

  • CVmaxKm

    20.

  • A

  • B

  • C


4441665

21.

  • AB

  • CD

    22.

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D


4441665

23.

  • A

  • B

  • C

    24.

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D


4441665

25.

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

    26.

  • A B

  • C D

  • E


4441665


4441665


4441665


  • Login