Practical work to deliver how science works
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Practical work to deliver ‘How science works’. SAPS (Science and Plants for Schools). Why are we here?. There are many positive changes to the new KS4 curriculum. Changes to KS4. There is an emphasis on scientific literacy

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Practical work to deliver ‘How science works’

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Practical work to deliver how science works

Practical work to deliver ‘How science works’

SAPS (Science and Plants for Schools)


Why are we here

Why are we here?

  • There are many positive changes to the new KS4 curriculum


Changes to ks4

Changes to KS4

There is an emphasis on scientific literacy

Pupils should get better at distinguishing between opinion based on scientific evidence and opinion based on non scientific ideas – they should be increasingly able to question the reports they see in the media..

They should learn about the applications of scientific knowledge and how these have changed over time and they should develop a greater understanding of the social, economic and ethical implications of certain decisions


Slight worry

Slight worry..

Many of the texts and resource materials being published for the new specifications do not emphasise practical work

Lots of good activities and exercises but many rely only on secondary data or analysing articles from the media

And yet if we look at the statements in the ‘how science works’ section……


Data evidence theories and explanations

Data, evidence, theories and explanations

1a. How scientific data can be collected and analysed.

1b. How interpretation of data, using creative thought, provides evidence to test ideas and develop theories.

1c. How explanations of many phenomena can be developed using scientific theories, models and ideas.

1d. That there are some questions that science cannot currently answer, and some that science cannot address.


Practical and enquiry skills

Practical and enquiry skills

2a. Plan to test a scientific idea, answer a scientific question or solve a scientific problem.

2b. Collect data from primary or secondary sources, including using ICT sources and tools.

2c. Work accurately and safely, individually and with others, when collecting first hand data.

2d. Evaluate methods of collection of data and consider their validity and reliability as evidence.


Communication skills

Communication skills

3a. Recall, analyse, interpret, apply and question scientific information or ideas.

3b. Use both qualitative and quantitative approaches

3c. Present information, develop and argument and draw a conclusion, using scientific, technical and mathematical language, conventions and symbols and ICT tools.


Applications and implications of science

Applications and implications of science

4a. About the use of contemporary scientific and technological developments and their benefits, drawbacks and risks.

4b. To consider how and why decisions about science and technology are made, including those that raise ethical issues, and about the social, economic and environmental effects of such decisions.

4c. How uncertainties in scientific knowledge and scientific ideas change over time and about the role of the scientific community in validating these changes.


Our view is

Our view is ..

  • The best way to encourage this is to do real investigative science

  • To help students to become genuinely curious by…

    setting investigatory work in a context and

    providing stimulus material to get them to generate their own questions


Practical work to deliver how science works

Tissue culture 4a

Hydroponics

3abc4a

Growth

1ab 2bcd

Natural selection 1c3abc

Photosynthesis

1b4c

Inter/intra specific competition

3abc

Pods/seeds 2bcd

Variation

TLC

Productivity

1b2bcd3abc

Crops e.g. carrots, sugar cane, rice, wheat, beans, rcbr, lettuce, tomatoes 2a

Crop variation – length, girth, mass (1a2bcd) and flavour (3b)

carotene

Genetics 1c

Nutrients 3bc4b

Evolution

(wild types) 1c

Graph work 1b,2bcd

Efficiency and waste

3abc4

Protein, carbohydrates

G.M crops

1cd, 3c4abc

Commercial varieties 1d

Selective breeding

3abc

Ethics 3c

Species hybridisation

Food miles

4b

Supermarket selection 4bc

Customer choice 4bc

Farming

3ac

organic

intensive

insecticides

Fertilisers 1ab2bcd

Effect of human activity

on the environment


Practical work to deliver how science works

Hydroponics

4a

Germination of plants

1a 1b 1c 1d

2a,2b,2c,2d

3a,3b,3c

Seed viability

Effects of human

activity on the

environment

8a

Variation and natural

Selection

5b

Contemporary science

Genetic modification Ethical issues

4a

Selective breeding


Copper pollution from medieval mine potential health threat

Copper pollution from medieval mine -potential health threat…

Slag heap from copper mine. Storm – washed onto land – reduction in yield – some plants dying. Scientists say "The drainage waters are more acidic than vinegar, with pH values around 2, and carry large loads of metals, including copper, zinc, and iron.”.


Questions generated by pupils

Questions generated by pupils

  • Does copper affect germination?

  • Does copper affect growth?

  • Are some plants more tolerant of copper than others?

  • What minerals do plants need to be healthy?

  • Do plants grow better with more minerals?

  • How do some plants grow in poor soils?


Generating primary data

Generating primary data

  • Set up your own dish with white mustard seeds.


Generating primary data1

Generating primary data

  • Collect the ‘ones we did earlier’ What observations/measurements could you make?


Collecting primary data

Collecting primary data


Comparison of seed germination rates

Comparison of seed germination rates


Using secondary data

Using secondary data


Practical work to deliver how science works

A leading UK Plant Scientist says

“plants need minute quantities of copper because some oxidase type of enzymes require copper to function, and because copper is involved in electron transfer during photosynthesis. However, amounts in excess of 30 parts per million are usually toxic. Root growth is impaired as the copper binds to cell membranes, damaging them”

Full article available to read

OLD SCIENTIST

Volume 1, Issue 1

4th December 2006

Copper not so harmful


Practical work to deliver how science works

  • macnair_cu.ppt

    (This link may need adjusting if you have downloaded this presentation to a different directory/folder)


Practical work to deliver how science works

Hydroponics

4a

Growth of plants

The need for minerals

2a,2b,2c,2d

3a,3b,3c

Nitrogen cycle

Effects of human

activity on the

environment

8a


Vetch mulch fetches more veggies

Vetch mulch fetches more veggies?

  • The way a tomato plant grows depends on how a farmer mulches and fertilizes it,” say researchers from the Department of Agriculture.


Hydroponics prompt article

Hydroponics prompt article


Practical work to deliver how science works

  • any1_here_eaten_lettuce.ppt

    (This link may need adjusting if you have downloaded this presentation to a different directory/folder)


Questions generated by pupils1

Questions generated by pupils

  • Is the nitrogen or the potassium more important to the growth of the plant?

  • Are all parts of the plant affected equally?

  • What minerals do plants need to be healthy?

  • Do plants grow better with more minerals?

  • How do some plants grow in poor soils?

  • How do plants grow without soil?


Practical work to deliver how science works

  • Students are provided with some equipment and seeds to investigate aspects of this for themselves. Mineral solutions lacking particular essential elements can be used to grow seedlings in. Mung beans and wheat have both generated good data. Students plan an investigation which they can set up next lesson


Skills

Skills

  • Fine manipulation of seed transfer

  • Observational skills (qualitative data is as important as quantitative)

  • Develop ideas to explain their observations.


Complete v minus k

Complete v minus K


Results

Results

  • Decide how to record your data.


Practical work to deliver how science works

Volume 1 Issue 2

11th December 2006

11th December 2006

“Scientists have known of the necessity of minerals for healthy plant growth for over 200 years. In the middle of the 19th century, three German workers (Pfeffer, von Sachs and Knop) realised how difficult it was to determine the kinds and amounts of minerals that plants need. They therefore grew plants in solutions containing mineral salts. It was then relatively easy to vary the minerals both qualitatively and quantitatively to see which were important. This became known as soil-less culture or hydroponics. Even today, plant scientists are adding to the list of nutrients required (it was only as recently as the early 1990s that Nickel was added to the list)”.

Full article available 

OLD SCIENTIST

HYDROPONIC SYSTEMS FOR EFFICIENT PLANT GROWTH


Practical work to deliver how science works

Hydroponics

4a

Insectivorous plants

5a

Growth of plants

The need for minerals

2a,2b,2c,2d

3a,3b,3c

Nitrogen cycle

Changes in farming practice –

Organic and inorganic

fertiliser.

Increasing mechanisation

Social, economic and environmental

Implications

4c

Consumer choice..

Is organic best ?

Ugly fruit 4b

Effects of human

activity on the

environment

8a

Eutrophication

Blue baby syndrome

4b

Food miles. Effect on the environment

Should we eat strawberries all year round?

4b

Contemporary science

Genetic modification Ethical issues

4a


Practical work to deliver how science works

  • food_miles_case_study.ppt

    (This link may need adjusting if you have downloaded this presentation to a different directory/folder)


Spectacular orchids double due to global warming

Spectacular orchids double due to global warming

…. Both the bee orchid and the pyramidal orchid have virtually doubled in frequency since 1987, according to a new survey carried out by the BSBI ….

From: THE INDEPENDENT Monday 24th April 2006


Practical work to deliver how science works

Warmer Britain will grow sunflowers, sweetcorn and teaby Juliette JowitSunday September 11, 2005The Observer

  • Scientists predict that climate change, which is largely blamed on global warming, will lead to hotter summers and wetter winters. Such changes are already credited with making possible crops such as apricots, almonds and tea in southern England. Milder weather has encouraged 300 vineyards, and talk of a French champagne house crossing the Channel.


Is it possible that the extra co 2 associated with global warming will be absorbed by plants

Is it possible that the extra CO2 associated with global warming will be absorbed by plants?

  • Look at the rate of photosynthesis at different concentrations of carbon dioxide


Skills1

Skills

  • Measuring the rate of photosynthesis using bubbling rates

  • Collecting the oxygen and using a variety of micro manipulation techniques to measure the volume produced


Practical work to deliver how science works

measure_psynthesis_by_o2_evolutn.ppt

(This link may need adjusting if you have downloaded this presentation to a different directory/folder)


Practical work to deliver how science works

  • Investigatory practical work should be at the heart of how science works. From the activities lots of links can be made to cover other aspects of the programme of study.


Practical work to deliver how science works

Hydroponics

4a

Insectivorous plants

Growth of plants

The need for minerals

2a,2b,2c,2d

3a,3b,3c

Nitrogen cycle

Changes in farming practice –

Organic and inorganic

fertiliser.

Increasing mechanisation

Social, economic and environmental

Implications

4c

Consumer choice..

Is organic best ?

Ugly fruit 4b

Effects of human

activity on the

environment

8a

Eutrophication

Blue baby syndrome

4b

Food miles. Effect on the environment

Should we eat strawberries all year round?

4b

Contemporary science

Genetic modification Ethical issues

4a


Do you want to have a go

Do you want to have a go?

  • If you are interested in developing these and other ideas there is a CD of material available. In return we would appreciate a completed evaluation form that can also be found on the CD.

  • Return electronically to presenters emails on next slide


Practical work to deliver how science works

Contact detailsColin Bielby [email protected] Dann [email protected] Eldridge [email protected]


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