Human impact on the atmosphere
Download
1 / 224

Human Impact on the Atmosphere - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 465 Views
  • Updated On :

Human Impact on the Atmosphere. Pollution Thorpe, Gary S., M.S., (2002). Barron’s How to prepare for the AP Environmental Science Advanced Placement Exam. The term “Smog” (smoke and fog) was first used in 1905 to describe sulfur dioxide emission

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Human Impact on the Atmosphere' - marin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Slide2 l.jpg
PollutionThorpe, Gary S., M.S., (2002). Barron’s How to prepare for the AP Environmental Science Advanced Placement Exam

  • The term “Smog” (smoke and fog) was first used in 1905 to describe sulfur dioxide emission

  • In 1952, severe pollution took the lives of 5000 people in London

  • “It isn’t pollution that’s harming the environment. It’s the impurities in our air and water that are doing it.” FormerU.S. Vice President Dan Quayle

www.aqmd.gov/pubinfo/ 97annual.html


The clean air act l.jpg
TheCleanAirAct

Congress found:

• Most people now live in urban areas

• Growth results in air pollution

• Air pollution endangers living things

It decided:

• Prevention and control at the source was appropriate

• Such efforts are the responsibility of states and local authorities

• Federal funds and leadership are essential for the development of effective programs


Clean air act l.jpg
Clean Air Act

  • Originally signed 1963

    • States controlled standards

  • 1970 – Uniform Standards by Federal Govt.

    • Criteria Pollutants

      • Primary – Human health risk

      • Secondary – Protect materials, crops, climate, visibility, personal comfort


Clean air act5 l.jpg
Clean Air Act

  • 1990 version

    • Acid rain, urban smog, toxic air pollutants, ozone depletion, marketing pollution rights, VOC’s

  • 1997 version

    • Reduced ambient ozone levels

    • Cost $15 billion/year -> save 15,000 lives

    • Reduce bronchitis cases by 60,000 per year

    • Reduce hospital respiratory admission 9000/year


Clean air act6 l.jpg
Clean Air Act

President George W. Bush signed rules amending Clean Air Act that allowed power plants and other industries to increase pollution significantly without adopting control measures


Slide7 l.jpg

http://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.htmlhttp://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.html

Appeals court blocks Bush clean air changes

Wednesday, December 24, 2003 Posted: 2:10 PM EST (1910 GMT)

WASHINGTON (AP) --A federal appeals court on Wednesday blocked new Bush administration changes to the Clean Air Act from going into effect the next day, in a challenge from state attorneys general and cities that argued they would harm the environment and public health.


Clean air act http www epa gov air oaq caa html l.jpg
Clean Air Act http://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.htmlhttp://www.epa.gov/air/oaq_caa.html

  • Title I - Air Pollution Prevention and Control

    • Part A - Air Quality and Emission Limitations

    • Part B - Ozone Protection (replaced by Title VI)

    • Part C - Prevention of Significant Deterioration of Air Quality

    • Part D - Plan Requirements for Nonattainment Areas

  • Title II - Emission Standards for Moving Sources

    • Part A - Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    • Part B - Aircraft Emission Standards

    • Part C - Clean Fuel Vehicles

  • Title III - General

  • Title IV - Acid Deposition Control

  • Title V - Permits

  • Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection


Outdoor air pollution l.jpg

Outdoor Air Pollutionhttp://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.html


Slide10 l.jpg

Primary Pollutantshttp://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.html

CO

CO2

Secondary Pollutants

SO2

NO

NO2

SO3

Most hydrocarbons

HNO3

H2SO4

Most suspended

particles

H2O2

O3

PANs

2

NO3

and

salts

SO4

Most

Natural

Sources

Stationary

Mobile


Major sources of primary pollutants l.jpg
Major Sources of Primary Pollutantshttp://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.html

Stationary Sources

  • Combustion of fuels for power and heat – Power Plants

  • Other burning such as Wood & crop burning or forest fires

  • Industrial/ commercial processes

  • Solvents and aerosols

    Mobile Sources

  • Highway: cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles

  • Off-highway: aircraft, boats, locomotives, farm equipment, RVs, construction machinery, and lawn mowers


Slide13 l.jpg

54 million metric tons from mobile sources in 1990http://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.html


Human impact on atmosphere l.jpg

Burning Fossil Fuelshttp://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.html

Using Nitrogen fertilizers and burning fossil fuels

Refining petroleum and burning fossil fuels

Manufacturing

Adds CO2 and O3 to troposphere

Global Warming

Altering Climates

Produces Acid Rain

Releases NO, NO2, N2O, and NH3 into troposphere

Produces acid rain

Releases SO2 into troposphere

Releases toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and As) into troposphere

Human Impact on Atmosphere

www.dr4.cnrs.fr/gif-2000/ air/products.html


Criteria air pollutants l.jpg
Criteria Air Pollutantshttp://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.html

EPA uses six "criteria pollutants" as indicators of air quality

  • Nitrogen Dioxide: NO2

  • Ozone: ground level O3

  • Carbon monoxide: CO

  • Lead: Pb

  • Particulate Matter: PM10 (PM 2.5)

  • Sulfur Dioxide: SO2

  • Volatile Organic Compounds: (VOCs)

    EPA established for each concentrations above which adverse effects on health may occur


Nitrogen dioxide no 2 l.jpg
Nitrogen Dioxide (NOhttp://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.html2)

  • Properties: reddish brown gas, formed as fuel burnt in car, strong oxidizing agent, forms Nitric acid in air

  • Effects: acid rain, lung and heart problems, decreased visibility (yellow haze), suppresses plant growth

  • Sources: fossil fuels combustion, power plants, forest fires, volcanoes, bacteria in soil

  • Class: Nitrogen oxides (NOx)

  • EPAStandard: 0.053 ppm


Mobile source emissions nitrogen oxides l.jpg
Mobile Source Emissions: Nitrogen Oxideshttp://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.html


Ozone o 3 l.jpg
Ozone (Ohttp://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.html3)

  • Properties: colorless, unpleasant odor, major part of photochemical smog

  • Effects: lung irritant, damages plants, rubber, fabric, eyes,

  • Sources: Created by sunlight acting on NOx and VOC , photocopiers, cars, industry, gas vapors, chemical solvents, incomplete fuel combustion products

  • Class: photochemical oxidants


Ozone o 319 l.jpg
Ozone (Ohttp://www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.ap/index.html3)

  • 10,000 to 15,000 people in US admitted to hospitals each year due to ozone-related illness

  • Children more susceptible

    • Airways narrower

    • More time spent outdoors



Carbon monoxide co l.jpg
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Ozone

  • Properties:colorless, odorless, heavier than air, 0.0036% of atmosphere

  • Effects:binds tighter to Hb than O2, mental functions and visual acuity, even at low levels

  • Sources:incomplete combustion of fossil fuels 60 - 95% from auto exhaust

  • Class:carbon oxides (CO2, CO)

  • EPAStandard:9 ppm

  • 5.5 billion tons enter atmosphere/year



Lead pb l.jpg
Lead (Pb) Ozone

  • Properties: grayish metal

  • Effects: accumulates in tissue; affects kidneys, liver and nervous system (children most susceptible); mental retardation; possible carcinogen; 20% of inner city kids have [high]

  • Sources: particulates, smelters, batteries

  • Class:toxic or heavy metals

  • EPAStandard: 1.5 ug/m3

  • 2 million tons enter atmosphere/year


Suspended particulate matter pm 10 l.jpg
Suspended Particulate Matter (PM Ozone10)

  • Properties: particles suspended in air (<10 um)

  • Effects: lung damage, mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic

  • Sources:burning coal or diesel, volcanoes, factories, unpaved roads, plowing, lint, pollen, spores, burning fields

  • Class: SPM: dust, soot, asbestos, lead, PCBs, dioxins, pesticides

  • EPA Standard: 50 ug/m3 (annual mean)



Sulfur dioxide so 2 l.jpg
Sulfur Dioxide (SO Ozone2)

  • Properties: colorless gas with irritating odor

  • Effects: produces acid rain (H2SO4), breathing difficulties, eutrophication due to sulfate formation, lichen and moss are indicators

  • Sources:burning high sulfur coal or oil, smelting or metals, paper manufacture

  • Class: sulfur oxides

  • EPA Standard: 0.3 ppm (annual mean)

  • Combines with water and NH4 to increase soil fertility


Vocs volatile organic compounds l.jpg
VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) Ozone

  • Properties: organic compounds (hydrocarbons) that evaporate easily, usually aromatic

  • Effects: eye and respiratory irritants; carcinogenic; liver, CNS, or kidney damage; damages plants; lowered visibility due to brown haze; global warming

  • Sources:vehicles(largest source),evaporation of solvents or fossil fuels, aerosols, paint thinners, dry cleaning

  • Class: HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants)

    • Methane

    • Benzene

    • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), etc.

  • Concentrations indoors up to 1000x outdoors

  • 600 million tons of CFCs


Other air pollutants l.jpg
Other Air Pollutants Ozone

  • Carbon dioxide

  • ChloroFluoroCarbons

  • Formaldehyde

  • Benzene

  • Asbestos

  • Manganese

  • Dioxins

  • Cadmium

  • Others not yet fully characterized


Formation intensity l.jpg
Formation & Intensity Ozone

Factors

  • Local climate (inversions, air pressure, temperature, humidity)

  • Topography (hills and mountains)

  • Population density

  • Amount of industry

  • Fuels used by population and industry for heating, manufacturing, transportation, power

  • Weather: rain, snow,wind

  • Buildings (slow wind speed)

  • Mass transit used

  • Economics


Thermal inversion l.jpg

cool air Ozone

Pollutants

cool air

warm air (inversion layer)

warm

air

• surface heated by sun

• warm air rises (incl. pollutants)

• cools off, mixes with air of equal

density & disperses

• surface cools rapidly (night)

• a layer of warm air overlays surface

• polluted surface air rises but cannot

disperse  remains trapped

Thermal Inversion


Smog forms l.jpg
Smog Forms Ozone

...when polluted air is stagnant

(weather conditions, geographic location)

Los Angeles, CA


Slide32 l.jpg

2 Ozone

SO4

NO3

Primary Pollutants

CO

CO2

Secondary Pollutants

SO2

NO

NO2

SO3

Most hydrocarbons

HNO3

H2SO4

Most suspended

particles

H2O2

O3

PANs

and

salts

Most

Natural

Sources

Stationary

Mobile


Photochemical smog l.jpg

Photochemical Smog Ozone

UV radiation

H2O + O2

Primary Pollutants

NO2 + Hydrocarbons

Secondary Pollutants

HNO3 O3

nitric acid ozone

Photochemical Smog

Auto Emissions


Slide34 l.jpg

Solar Ozone

radiation

Photochemical Smog

Ultraviolet radiation

NO

Nitric oxide

O

Atomic

oxygen

O2

Molecular

oxygen

NO2

Nitrogen

dioxide

H2O

Water

Hydrocarbons

PANs

Peroxyacyl

nitrates

Aldehydes

(e.g., formaldehyde)

O3

Ozone

HNO3

Nitric acid

P h o t o c h e m i c a l S m o g



Why is indoor air quality important l.jpg
Why is indoor air quality important? Ozone

  • 70 to 90% of time spent indoors, mostly at home

  • Many significant pollution sources in the home (e.g. gas cookers, paints and glues)

  • Personal exposure to many common pollutants is driven by indoor exposure

  • Especially important for susceptible groups – e.g. the sick, old and very young


Exposure l.jpg
Exposure Ozone

  • Time spent in various environments in US and less-developed countries


House of commons select committee enquiry on indoor air pollution 1991 l.jpg
House of Commons Select Committee Enquiry on Indoor Air Pollution (1991)

  • “[There is] evidence that 3 million people have asthma in the UK… and this is increasing by 5% per annum.”

  • “Overall there appears to be a worryingly large number of health problems which could be connected with indoor pollution and which affect very large numbers of the population.”

  • [The Committee recommends that the Government] “develop guidelines and codes of practice for indoor air quality in buildings which specifically identify exposure limits for an extended list of pollutants…”


Sources of indoor air pollutants l.jpg
Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants Pollution (1991)

  • Building materials

  • Furniture

  • Furnishings and fabrics

  • Glues

  • Cleaning products

  • Other consumer products

  • Combustion appliances (cookers and heaters)

  • Open fires

  • Tobacco smoking

  • Cooking

  • House dust mites, bacteria and moulds

  • Outdoor air


Important indoor air pollutants l.jpg
Important Indoor Air pollutants Pollution (1991)

  • Nitrogen dioxide

  • Carbon monoxide

  • Formaldehyde

  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

  • House dust mites (and other allergens, e.g. from pets)

  • Environmental tobacco smoke

  • Fine particles

  • Chlorinated organic compounds (e.g. pesticides)

  • Asbestos and man-made mineral fibres

  • Radon


Health effects l.jpg
Health Effects Pollution (1991)

Nitrogen dioxide

  • Respiratory irritant

  • Elevated risk of respiratory illness in children, perhaps resulting from increased susceptibility to respiratory infection; inconsistent evidence for effects in adults

  • Concentrations in kitchens can readily exceed WHO and EPA standards


Health effects42 l.jpg
Health Effects Pollution (1991)

Carbon monoxide

  • An asphyxiant and toxicant

  • Hazard of acute intoxication, mostly from malfunctioning fuel-burning appliances and inadequate or blocked fumes

  • Possibility of chronic effects of long-term exposure to non- lethal concentrations, particularly amongst susceptible groups


Health effects43 l.jpg
Health Effects Pollution (1991)

Formaldehyde

  • Sensory and respiratory irritant and sensitizer

  • Possible increased risk of asthma and chronic bronchitis in children at higher exposure levels

  • Individual differences in sensory and other transient responses

  • Caution over rising indoor concentrations


Health effects44 l.jpg
Health Effects Pollution (1991)

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

  • Occur in complex and variable mixtures

  • Main health effects relate to comfort and well-being, but benzene (and other VOCs) are carcinogenic

  • Concern about possible role of VOCs in the aetiology of multiple chemical sensitivity; also implicated in sick building syndrome


Health effects45 l.jpg
Health Effects Pollution (1991)

House dust mites

  • House dust mites produce Der p1 allergen, a potent sensitizer

  • Good evidence of increased risk of sensitization with increasing allergen exposure, but this does not necessarily lead to asthma

  • Small reductions in exposure will not necessarily lead to reduced incidence and/or symptoms

  • Indoor humidity is important


Health effects46 l.jpg
Health Effects Pollution (1991)

Fungi and bacteria

  • Dampness and mould-growth linked to self-reported respiratory conditions, but little convincing evidence for association between measured airborne fungi and respiratory disease

  • Insufficient data to relate exposure to (non-pathogenic) bacteria to health effects in the indoor environment


Health effects47 l.jpg
Health Effects Pollution (1991)

Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)

  • Sudden infant death syndrome

  • Lower respiratory tract illness

  • Middle ear disease

  • Asthma

    12 million children exposed to secondhand smoke in homes


Health effects48 l.jpg
Health Effects Pollution (1991)

Fine particles

  • Consistent evidence that exposure to small airborne particles (e.g. PM10) in ambient air can impact on human health; mechanisms uncertain

  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Cardiovascular Disease patients and asthmatics probably at extra risk

  • Relative importance of indoor sources is unknown


Health effects49 l.jpg
Health Effects Pollution (1991)

Radon

  • Can cause lung cancer

  • Estimated that 7,000 to 30,000 Americans die each year from radon-induced lung cancer

  • Only smoking causes more lung cancer deaths

  • Smokers more at risk than non-smokers


Radon risk non smoker l.jpg
Radon Risk: Non-Smoker Pollution (1991)

If you are a former smoker, your risk may be higher


Radon risk smoker l.jpg
Radon Risk: Smoker Pollution (1991)

If you are a former smoker, your risk may be lower


Radon l.jpg
Radon Pollution (1991)

  • 55% of our exposure to radiation comes from radon

  • colorless, tasteless, odorless gas

  • formed from the decay of uranium

  • found in nearly all soils

  • levels vary


Slide53 l.jpg

(From: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/radon/zonemap.html) Pollution (1991)

Zone pCi/L

1 >4

2 2 - 4

3 <2


Radon how it enters buildings l.jpg
Radon: How it Enters Buildings Pollution (1991)

  • Cracks in solid floors

  • Construction joints

  • Cracks in walls

  • Gaps in suspended floors

  • Gaps around service pipes

  • Cavities inside walls

  • The water supply

http://www.epa.gov/iaq/radon/pubs/citguide.html#howdoes


Radon reducing the risks l.jpg
Radon: Reducing the Risks Pollution (1991)

  • Sealing cracks in floors and walls

  • Simple systems using pipes and fans

  • More information: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/radon/pubs/consguid.html#reductiontech


Slide56 l.jpg

Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) Pollution (1991)

vs

Building Related Illness (BRI)


Sick building syndrome l.jpg
Sick Building Syndrome Pollution (1991)

  • A persistent set of symptoms in > 20% population

  • Causes(s) not known or recognizable

  • Complaints/Symptoms relieved after exiting building


Complaints symptoms l.jpg

Headaches Pollution (1991)

Fatigue

Reduced Mentation

Irritability

Eye, nose or throat irritation

Dry Skin

Nasal Congestion

Difficulty Breathing

Nose Bleeds

Nausea

Complaints/Symptoms


Building related illness l.jpg
Building Related Illness Pollution (1991)

  • Clinically Recognized Disease

  • Exposure to indoor air pollutants

  • Recognizable Causes


Clinically recognized diseases l.jpg
Clinically Recognized Diseases Pollution (1991)

  • Pontiac Fever – Legionella spp.

  • Legionnaire's Disease

  • Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

  • Humidifier Fever

  • Asthma

  • Allergy

  • Respiratory Disease

    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease


Ventilation l.jpg
Ventilation Pollution (1991)


Movement of air into out of homes l.jpg
Movement of Air Into / Out of Homes Pollution (1991)

  • Amount of air available to dilute pollutants

    • important indicator of the likely contaminant concentration

  • Indoor air can mix with outside air by three mechanisms

    • infiltration

    • natural ventilation

    • forced ventilation


Movement of air into out of homes63 l.jpg
Movement of Air Into / Out of Homes Pollution (1991)

  • Infiltration

    • natural air exchange that occurs between a building and its environment when the doors and windows are closed

    • leakage through holes or openings in the building envelope

    • pressure induced

      • due to pressure differentials inside and outside of the building

      • especially important with cracks and other openings in wall


Movement of air into out of homes64 l.jpg
Movement of Air Into / Out of Homes Pollution (1991)

  • Infiltration

    • Temperature induced (stack effect)

      • driven by air movement through holes in floors, ceilings

      • in winter, warm air in a building wants to rise, exits through cracks in ceiling and draws in


Movement of air into out of homes65 l.jpg
Movement of Air Into / Out of Homes Pollution (1991)

  • Natural ventilation

    • air exchange that occurs when windows or doors are opened to increase air circulation

  • Forced ventilation

    • mechanical air handling systems used to induce air exchange using fans and blowers

  • Trade-offs

    • cut infiltration to decrease heating and cooling costs vs. indoor air quality problems


Movement of air into out of homes66 l.jpg
Movement of Air Into / Out of Homes Pollution (1991)

  • Infiltration rates

    • Influenced by

      • how fast wind is blowing, pressure differentials

      • temperature differential between inside and outside of house

      • location of leaks in building envelope


Greenhouse effect l.jpg

Greenhouse Effect Pollution (1991)


Slide69 l.jpg

http://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/cascade.htmlhttp://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/cascade.html


Natural greenhouse effect l.jpg
Natural Greenhouse Effecthttp://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/cascade.html

  • With Greenhouse Effect average global temperature 60 degrees

  • Without it, Earth would be a frigid planet, with average temperature around zero degrees Fahrenheit


Global warming l.jpg

Global Warminghttp://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/cascade.html

Increased Greenhouse Gases in the Troposphere

Excess heat

CO2 CFCs CH4


Slide72 l.jpg

Greenhouse Gaseshttp://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/cascade.html

Carbon dioxide

Methane

Nitrous oxide

Ozone

CFC’s

Hydrofluorocarbons

Perfluorinated carbons

Water vapour


Slide73 l.jpg

Average Temperature Over Past 900,000 Yearshttp://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/cascade.html

17

16

15

14

Average Surface Temperature (°C)

13

12

11

10

9

900

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

Present

Thousands of Years Ago


Slide74 l.jpg

Temperature Change Over Past 22,000 Yearshttp://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/cascade.html

2

Agriculture established

1

0

-1

End of

last ice

age

Temperature Change (°C)

-2

-3

Average temperature over past

10,000 years = 15°C (59°F)

-4

-5

20,000

10,000

2,000

1,000

200

100

Now

Years Ago


Slide75 l.jpg

Average Temperature Over Past 130 Yearshttp://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/cascade.html

15.0

14.8

14.6

14.4

Average Surface Temperature (°C)

14.2

14.0

13.8

13.6

1860

1880

1900

1920

1940

1960

1980

2000

2020

Year


Is this increase in temperature natural or l.jpg

Is this increase in temperature natural or ?http://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/cascade.html


Slide77 l.jpg

380http://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/cascade.html

360

340

320

300

280

Concentration of CO2

in the Atmosphere (ppm)

Carbon dioxide

260

240

+2.5

220

0

200

Variation of temperature (˚C)

from current level

–2.5

180

–5.0

–7.5

Temperature

change

–10.0

End of

last ice age

160

120

80

40

0

Thousands of Years Before Present


Slide78 l.jpg

Carbon dioxidehttp://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/cascade.html

Methane

Nitrous oxide

250

200

Index (1900 = 100)

150

100

1990

2000

2025

2050

2075

2100

Year




Methane l.jpg
Methane feet

  • Core samples taken from old ocean sediment layers have been used to trace back in time the climate changes that have occurred over the past tens of millions of years

  • short periods of only a few hundred years in the geological past when rapid increases of the Earth's temperature have occurred superimposed on top of the rise and fall of average temperatures over the longer term up to 15 degrees centigrade warmer than today.


Methane84 l.jpg
Methane feet

  • Temperatures then fell back to the long term trend, the whole rise and fall only lasting a few hundred years.

  • The most likely cause of this rapid global warming over such a short period is the release of methane into the atmosphere.

  • Methane is 60 times more powerful than CO2 as a greenhouse gas

  • Methane was released due to breakdown of material associated with permafrost


Slide86 l.jpg

6.0 feet

Predictions of Future Warming?

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

Change in Temperature (ºC)

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0

1850

1875

1900

1925

1950

1975

2000

2025

2050

2075

2100

Year


Top greenhouse gas emitters l.jpg
Top Greenhouse Gas Emitters feet

  • 19.1 % - United States

  • 9.9% - China

  • 5.1% - Japan

  • 4.3% - Brazil

  • 3.8 % - Germany

  • 3.7% - Japan

  • 2.4% - United Kingdom

  • 1.9% - Indonesia

  • 1.7% - Italy



Atmosphere impacts from global warming l.jpg

Atmosphere Impacts from Global Warming? global warming?

Weather

Ocean currents

Sea level

Water resources

Biodiversity

Forests

Human health

Agriculture

Human demographics


Slide90 l.jpg

Agriculture global warming?

Water Resources

Forests

  • Shifts in food-growing areas

  • Changes in crop yields

  • Increased irrigation demands

  • Increased pests, crop diseases, and weeds in warmer areas

  • Changes in forest composition and locations

  • Disappearance of some forests

  • Increased fires from drying

  • Loss of wildlife habitat and species

  • Changes in water supply

  • Decreased water quality

  • Increased drought

  • Increased flooding

Biodiversity

Sea Level and Coastal Areas

  • Rising sea levels

  • Flooding of low-lying islands and coastal cities

  • Flooding of coastal estuaries, wetlands, and coral reefs

  • Beach erosion

  • Disruption of coastal fisheries

  • Contamination of coastal aquifiers with salt water

  • Extinction of some plant and animal species

  • Loss of habitats

  • Disruption of aquatic life

Weather Extremes

Human Health

Human Population

  • Increased deaths from heat and disease

  • Disruption of food and water supplies

  • Spread of tropical diseases to temperate areas

  • Increased respiratory disease

  • Increased water pollution from coastal flooding

  • Prolonged heat waves and droughts

  • Increased flooding

  • More intense hurricanes, typhoons, tornadoes, and violent storms

  • Increased deaths

  • More environmental refugees

  • Increased migration


Direct manifestations l.jpg
Direct manifestations global warming?

  • Heat waves and periods of unusually warm weather

  • Sea level rise and coastal flooding

  • Glaciers melting

  • Arctic and Antarctic warming with ice shelves breaking up

  • Increase severity of weather

  • Zooplankton are dying in the Pacific Ocean


Slide92 l.jpg

Heat wave kills 30, no relief in sight global warming?

July 27, 1999

http://www.cnn.com/WEATHER/9907/27/heat.wave.02/index.html


Slide93 l.jpg

Monster iceberg breaks off Antarctic ice shelf global warming?

May 10, 2002

http://www.cnn.com/2002/TECH/space/05/09/iceberg.satellite/index.html


Slide94 l.jpg

Greenland global warming?

Greenland

Cold water melting from

Antarctica's ice cap and

icebergs falls to the ocean floor

and surges northward, affecting

worldwide circulation.

Cold water melting from

Antarctica's ice cap and

icebergs falls to the ocean floor

and surges northward, affecting

worldwide circulation.

Antarctica


Slide95 l.jpg

Today’s sea level global warming?

0

0

Height below present

sea level (feet)

Height above or below

present sea level (meters)

–130

–426

250,000

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

0

Years before present

Present


Slide96 l.jpg

If all the ice on Greenland melted, world sea levels would rise about six metres (20 feet)If all the ice on the Antarctic continent melted, sea levels would rise over 70 metres (230 feet)This is unlikely to happen, but small increases will continue.


Possible consequences l.jpg
Possible Consequences rise about six metres (20 feet)

  • Spreading disease

  • Earlier spring arrival

  • Plant and animal range shifts and population declines

  • Coral reef bleaching

  • Downpours, heavy snowfalls, and flooding

  • Droughts and fires


Slide102 l.jpg

Global warming may harm human health rise about six metres (20 feet)

November 16, 1998

Climatic changes related

to global warming could

foster dangerous outbreaks

of cholera, dengue fever

and malaria, …

http://www.cnn.com/TECH/science/9811/16/climate.health.enn/index.html


Slide103 l.jpg

Study: Global warming spurs migrations rise about six metres (20 feet)

Thursday, January 2, 2003

Rising global temperatures that have lured plants into early bloom and birds to nest earlier in the spring are altering the ranges and behavior of hundreds of plant and animal species worldwide, two studies conclude. http://www.cnn.com/2003/TECH/science/01/02/climate.migrations.ap/index.html


Slide104 l.jpg

Report: Coral bleaching hits record level rise about six metres (20 feet)

May 19, 1999

Global warming has

been linked to an

unprecedented episode

of coral bleaching

in 1998, …

http://www.cnn.com/NATURE/9905/19/coral.bleaching.enn/index.html


Slide105 l.jpg

Vicious cycle: Global warming feeds fire potential rise about six metres (20 feet)

November 2, 2000

Global warming may greatly accelerate the fire

cycle in the desert ecosystem of North America,

according to a study published today in the journal

Nature.

Elevated carbon dioxide levels, the result of

increased fossil fuel burning, can alter the delicate

balance of grasses in desert areas, the report notes.

This finding may have major implications for the

biodiversity and health of desert ecosystems in the

western United States.

"This could be a real problem for land managers,"

said Stan Smith, a professor of biology at the

University of Nevada in Las Vegas and lead

author of the study. http://www.cnn.com/2000/NATURE/11/02/global.warming.enn/index.html


Slide106 l.jpg

http://www.soton.ac.uk/~engenvir/environment/air/greenhouse.problems.htmlhttp://www.soton.ac.uk/~engenvir/environment/air/greenhouse.problems.html


Slide107 l.jpg

Anomaly = difference between actual value and some mean value; in this case the mean is a 30 year average


Warmest years on record l.jpg

1981 value; in this case the mean is a 30 year average

1983

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

Warmest Years on Record


Ozone hole l.jpg

Ozone Hole value; in this case the mean is a 30 year average


Understanding ozone http royal okanagan bc ca mpidwirn atmosphereandclimate ozonehole html l.jpg
Understanding Ozone value; in this case the mean is a 30 year averagehttp://royal.okanagan.bc.ca/mpidwirn/atmosphereandclimate/ozonehole.html

  • Discovered in 1839 by German scientist Christian Friedrich Schonbein

  • Pale blue, unstable molecule made of three oxygen atoms

  • Vital to life in the stratosphere

  • Harmful to plants and humans in the troposphere

  • Concentration: stratosphere  up to 15 ppm at about 25 km

  • Formed when atomic oxygen (O) from higher parts of the atmosphere collides with molecular oxygen (O2) in the stratosphere

  • UV radiation splits the ozone back to O and O2 and it can form another ozone molecule


Slide111 l.jpg

http://www-imk.fzk.de/topoz-iii/ataglanz/ozonbild.html value; in this case the mean is a 30 year average


Slide112 l.jpg

http://www-imk.fzk.de/topoz-iii/ataglanz/ozonzerst.html value; in this case the mean is a 30 year average


The ozone hole l.jpg
The Ozone Hole value; in this case the mean is a 30 year average

  • First discovered in 1985: observations from Antarctica extend back into 1950’s.

  • Characterized as a rapid depletion of ozone over Antarctica during spring.

    • Ozone hole season, Spring (August – October)

    • Ozone hole located over mainly over Antarctica.

    • Ozone hole recovers by late December

  • Ozone hole caused by human chemicals (CFC’s)

  • Ozone hole not present in early 1970’s


Slide116 l.jpg

science.widener.edu/svb/ atmo_chem/oct15.html value; in this case the mean is a 30 year average


Slide118 l.jpg

Ozone hole stabilizes value; in this case the mean is a 30 year average

October 17, 2001

WASHINGTON (CNN) -- A hole in the Earth's protective ozone layer

is about the same size as in the past three

years, according to scientists at the National

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,

who predict it will hold steady in the near

future.

Satellite data show the hole over Antarctica,

which allows more harmful solar radiation to

reach the Earth, peaked this year at about 10

million square miles (26 million square km),

roughly the size of North America.

http://www.cnn.com/2001/TECH/space/10/17/ozone.hole.size/index.html


History of ozone depletion l.jpg
History of Ozone Depletion value; in this case the mean is a 30 year average

  • CFCs developed in 40’s and 50’s

    • Refrigerants, propellants, fire retardants

  • 1970’s CFCs detected in atmosphere.

    • Many of these have long atmospheric lifetimes (10’s to 100’s of years)

  • 1974 Rowland and Molina propose that CFC’s can destroy ozone in the stratosphere.

    • CFCs broken apart by UV radiation forming chlorine which can destroy ozone quickly:

      • O3 +Cl  ClO+ O2 (Catalytic Reaction)

      • ClO+O  Cl+O2


Chlorofluorocarbons or cfcs l.jpg
Chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs value; in this case the mean is a 30 year average

  • First produced by General Motors Corporation in 1928, CFCs were created as a replacement to the toxic refrigerant ammonia

  • CFCs have also been used as a propellant in spray cans, cleaner for electronics, sterilant for hospital equipment, and to produce the bubbles in Styrofoam


Slide122 l.jpg


Action of cfcs l.jpg
Action of CFCs up to 200 years in the atmosphere

  • CFCs created at the Earth's surface drift slowly upward to the stratosphere where UV radiation from the sun causes their decomposition and the release of chlorine

  • Chlorine in turn attacks the molecules of ozone converting them into oxygen molecules

    Cl + O3 »»» ClO + O2

    ClO + O »»» Cl + O2


Slide126 l.jpg

Ultraviolet light hits a chlorofluorocarbon up to 200 years in the atmosphere

(CFC) molecule, such as CFCl3, breaking

off a chlorine atom and leaving

CFCl2.

Sun

Cl

Cl

Once free, the chlorine atom is off

to attack another ozone molecule

and begin the cycle again.

C

Cl

F

UV radiation

Cl

Cl

O

O

A free oxygen atom pulls

the oxygen atom off

the chlorine monoxide

molecule to form O2.

The chlorine atom attacks

an ozone (O3) molecule, pulling an oxygen atom

off it and leaving

an oxygen

molecule (O2).

Cl

Cl

O

O

O

O

O

The chlorine

atom and the

oxygen atom join

to form a chlorine

monoxide molecule (ClO)

Cl

O

O

O



Slide128 l.jpg

A single chlorine atom removes about 100,000 ozone molecules before it is taken out of operation by other substances


Low and middle latitudes l.jpg
Low and Middle Latitudes before it is taken out of operation by other substances

Current measurements indicate that the amount of ozone in the stratosphere of the low and middle latitudes has decreased by about 3% with estimates that it will decrease by10% by 2025


Harmful effects of uv radiation l.jpg
Harmful effects of UV radiation. before it is taken out of operation by other substances

  • Skin cancer (ultraviolet radiation can destroy acids in DNA)

  • Cataracts and sun burning

  • Suppression of immune systems

  • Adverse impact on crops and animals

  • Reduction in the growth of ocean phytoplankton

  • Cooling of the Earth's stratosphere and possibly some surface climatic effect

  • Degradation of paints and plastic material


Slide132 l.jpg

matrix.ucdavis.edu/tumors/tradition/ gallery-ssmm.html before it is taken out of operation by other substances


Slide133 l.jpg

www.snec.com.sg/clinical_services/ cataract.asp before it is taken out of operation by other substances


Conclusion l.jpg
Conclusion before it is taken out of operation by other substances

  • Ozone Depletion Exists and effects certain areas of the Earth more than others

  • Currently, one in five North Americans and one in two Australians will develop some form of skin cancer in their lifetime

  • With a sustained 10% decrease in stratospheric ozone, an additional 300,000 non-melanoma and 4,500 melanoma skin cancers could be expected world-wide, according to UNEP estimates.


Acid deposition l.jpg

Acid Deposition before it is taken out of operation by other substances


Measuring acid rain l.jpg
Measuring Acid Rain before it is taken out of operation by other substances

  • Acid rain is measured using a "pH" scale.

    • The lower a substance's pH, the more acidic it is.

  • Pure water has a pH of 7.0.

    • Normal rain is slightly acidic and has a pH of about 5.6

  • Any rainfall has a pH value less than 5.6 is defined as acid rain

  • As of the year 2000, the most acidic rain falling in the US has a pH of about 4.3.


Two forms l.jpg

Wet before it is taken out of operation by other substances

Refers to acid rain, fog, sleet, cloud vapor and snow.

Dry

Refers to acidic gases and particles.

Two Forms…


Compounds l.jpg
Compounds before it is taken out of operation by other substances

Two main contributers to acid deposition:

  • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

  • Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)

    * 66% of all sulfur dioxides and 25% of all nitrogen oxides comes from electric power generation that produces energy by burning fossil fuels.


Slide140 l.jpg

When gas pollutants e.g. before it is taken out of operation by other substancessulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxidedissolve in rain water, various acids are formed.

  • CO2 + H2O  H2CO3 (carbonic acid)

  • SO2 + H2O  H2SO3 (sulphorous acid)

  • NO2 + H2O  HNO2 (nitrous acid) + HNO3 (nitric acid)


Causes of acid rain l.jpg
Causes of Acid Rain before it is taken out of operation by other substances

  • Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the primary causes of acid rain.

  • In the US, About 2/3 of all SO2and 1/4 of all NOx comes from electric power generation that relies on burning fossil fuels like coal.


Acidic precipitation l.jpg

Acidic Precipitation before it is taken out of operation by other substances

Primary Pollutants

SO2

NO2

Secondary Pollutants

H2SO4 HNO2

sulfuric acid nitric acid

acidic precipitation

vegetation

direct toxicity

indirect health effects

water

Fossil fuels

Power plants

Industrial emissions

Auto emissions

soils

leaching of minerals

sediments

leaching aluminum


Slide144 l.jpg

Acidic before it is taken out of operation by other substances

Precipitation

Wind

Transformation to

sulfuric acid (H2SO4)

and nitric acid (HNO3)

Windborne ammonia gas

and particles of cultivated soil

partially neutralize acids and

form dry sulfate and nitrate salts

Wet acid deposition

(droplets of H2SO4 and

HNO3 dissolved in rain

and snow)

Dry acid

deposition

(sulfur dioxide

gas and particles

of sulfate and

nitrate salts)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

and NO

Nitric oxide (NO)

Acid fog

Farm

Lakes in

deep soil

high in limestone

are buffered

Lakes in shallow

soil low in

limestone

become

acidic

Ocean


Slide145 l.jpg

BIOL 349 before it is taken out of operation by other substances

Atmosphere

Fig. 17.10, p. 428


Slide146 l.jpg

Sulphur dioxide emission (1997) before it is taken out of operation by other substances


Wet acid rain l.jpg
“Wet” Acid Rain before it is taken out of operation by other substances

  • Acidic water flows over and through the ground, it affects a variety of plants and animals.


Dry acid rain l.jpg
“Dry” Acid Rain before it is taken out of operation by other substances

  • Dry deposition refers to acidic gases and particles.

  • About half of the acidity in theatmosphere falls back to earth through dry deposition.

  • The wind blows these acidic particles and gases onto buildings, cars, homes, and trees.

http://svr1-pek.unep.net/soechina/images/acid.jpg


Increased acidity l.jpg
Increased Acidity before it is taken out of operation by other substances

  • Dry deposited gases and particles can also be washed from trees and other surfaces by rainstorms.

  • The runoff water adds those acids to the acid rain, making the combination more acidic than the falling rain alone.


Effects of acid rain l.jpg
Effects of Acid Rain before it is taken out of operation by other substances

  • The strength of the effects depend on many factors

    • How acidic the water is

    • The chemistry and buffering capacity of the soils involved

    • The types of fish, trees, and other living things that rely on the water


Effects of acid rain152 l.jpg
Effects of Acid Rain before it is taken out of operation by other substances

  • Has a variety of effects, including damage to forests and soils, fish and other living things, materials, and human health.

  • Also reduces how far and how clearly we can see through the air, an effect called visibility reduction.

  • Effects of acid rain are most clearly seen in the aquatic environments

  • Most lakes and streams have a pH between 6 and 8

http://cica.indiana.edu/projects/Biology/movies.html


Buffering capacity l.jpg
Buffering Capacity before it is taken out of operation by other substances

  • Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of water, which are located in watersheds whose soils have a limited "buffering capacity“

  • Lakes and streams become acidic when the water itself and its surrounding soil cannot buffer the acid rain enough to neutralize it.


Slide154 l.jpg

http://home.earthlink.net/~photofish/fish_photos/sw10_thumb.jpg


Effects on wildlife l.jpg
Effects on Wildlife releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.

  • Generally, the young of most species are more sensitive to environmental conditions than adults.

  • At pH 5, most fish eggs cannot hatch.

  • At lower pH levels, some adult fish die.

  • Some acid lakes have no fish.


Effects on wildlife157 l.jpg
Effects on Wildlife releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.

  • Both low pH and increased aluminum levels are directly toxic to fish.

  • In addition, low pH and increased aluminum levels cause chronic stress that may not kill individual fish, but leads to lower body weight and smaller size and makes fish less able to compete for food and habitat.


Acid rain and forests l.jpg
Acid Rain and Forests releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.

  • Acid rain does not usually kill trees directly.

  • Instead, it is more likely to weaken trees by damaging their leaves, limiting the nutrients available to them, or exposing them to toxic substances slowly released from the soil.


Slide159 l.jpg

Mongolia releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.

Germany


Effects of acid rain160 l.jpg
Effects of Acid Rain releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.

Great Smoky Mountains, NC


Nutrients l.jpg
Nutrients releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.

  • Acidic water dissolves the nutrients and helpful minerals in the soil and then washes them away before trees and other plants can use them to grow.

  • Acid rain also causes the release of substances that are toxic to trees and plants, such as aluminum, into the soil.


Air pollution prevention l.jpg

Air Pollution Prevention releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.


Specific air pollution treatment technology l.jpg
Specific Air Pollution Treatment Technology releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.

  • Traditional

    • Move factory to remote location

    • Build taller smokestack so wind blows pollution elsewhere

  • New

    • Biofiltration : vapors pumped through soil where microbes degrade

    • High-energy destruction: high-voltage electricity

    • Membrane separation: diffusion of organic vapors through membrane

    • Oxidation: High temperature combustor


Absorption l.jpg
Absorption releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.


Adsorption l.jpg
Adsorption releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.


Combustion l.jpg
Combustion releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.


Cyclone l.jpg
Cyclone releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.


Filtration l.jpg
Filtration releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.


Electrostatic precipitator l.jpg
Electrostatic Precipitator releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.


Liquid scrubber l.jpg
Liquid Scrubber releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.


Sulfur dioxide control l.jpg
Sulfur Dioxide Control releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.

http://www.apt.lanl.gov/projects/cctc/factsheets/puair/adflugasdemo.html


Air pollution results l.jpg

Air Pollution Results releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.


Comparison of 1970 and 1999 emissions l.jpg
Comparison of 1970 and 1999 Emissions releases aluminum from soils into lakes and streams; aluminum is highly toxic to many species of aquatic organisms.


Slide179 l.jpg

Number of People Living in Counties with Air Quality Concentrations Above the Level of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in 1999


Slide180 l.jpg

Trends in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Following Implementation of Phase I of the Acid Rain Program: Total State-level Utility SO2 (1980, 1990, 1999)


Fifty years of air pollution l.jpg
Fifty of Phase I of the Acid Rain Program: Total State-level Utility SO2 (1980, 1990, 1999)YearsofAirPollution

Figures are in millions of metric tons per year


Mobile sources the last ten years l.jpg
Mobile of Phase I of the Acid Rain Program: Total State-level Utility SO2 (1980, 1990, 1999)Sources:The LastTen Years

VOCs CO NOx PM10 SOx Lead

Percent reductions shown are based on estimates of tons/year from mobile sources over the 1981 - 1990 time period

-3%

-8%

-10%

-24%

-29%

-85%


Who is affected by air pollution l.jpg
Who is of Phase I of the Acid Rain Program: Total State-level Utility SO2 (1980, 1990, 1999)Affected byAir Pollution?

63

Over 74 million people are subjected to high levels of at least one of these pollutants

Millions of people living in counties with air quality that exceeds each NAAQS (1990 data)

22

19

9

5

1

Ozone CO NO2 PM10 SO2 Lead


Milestones in the control of automotive emissions l.jpg
Milestones of Phase I of the Acid Rain Program: Total State-level Utility SO2 (1980, 1990, 1999)in theControlofAutomotiveEmissions

1952 - Autos linked to air pollution

1963 - Original CAA, PCV valves

1968 - HC & CO exhaust controls

1970 - CAA amendments, EPA formed

1971 - Evaporative controls

1972 - First I/M Program

1973 - NOx exhaust controls

1975 - First catalytic converters

1981 - New cars meet statutory limits

1989 - Volatility limits on gasoline

1990 - New CAA Amendments


Slide185 l.jpg


What is the kyoto protocol l.jpg
What is the Kyoto Protocol? 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

How did we get to Kyoto?

What are the goals of Kyoto?

Is Kyoto enough?


Steps to kyoto l.jpg
Steps to Kyoto 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1985 International Council of Scientific Unions (Prof. Bert Bolin)

“Many important economic and social decisions are being made today on long term projects, all based on the assumption that past climatic data, without modification, are a reliable guide to the future. This is no longer a good assumption”


Steps to kyoto188 l.jpg
Steps to Kyoto 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1988 - Toronto - creation of IPCC

warmest summer to date, international meeting in Toronto

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change formed

1990 - First report (FAR)

overview of the current science of climate change


Slide189 l.jpg
IPCC 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

IPCC headed by Prof. Bert Bolin

3 working groups

Climate Science

Climate Impacts

Response Strategies

1992 - FAR used in Earth Summit meeting in Rio - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change


Slide190 l.jpg
IPCC 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1995 IPCC Second Assessment Report (SAR) completed, published in 1996

WG I Climate Science

WG II Impact, Adaptation and Mitigation

WG III Economic and Social Dimensions

“The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate”


Slide191 l.jpg
IPCC 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1997 Kyoto meeting - binding targets set

culmination of a series of meetings since Rio (1992)

2001 Bonn - rescuing Kyoto

2001 IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR)

WG I Climate Science

WG II Vulnerabilities, Impacts and Adaptation

WG III Mitigation


Slide192 l.jpg
IPCC 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

TAR (2001)

“There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities” (WG I)

Global losses in weather related natural disasters have increased ten-fold from the 1960s to the 1990s, and that a portion of this increase must be due to increases in frequency and intensity of some extreme events. (WG II)

“most of the opportunities to reduce emissions will come from energy efficiency gains and in reducing release of greenhouse gases from industry” (WG III)


Goals of kyoto protocol l.jpg
Goals of Kyoto Protocol 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

Reduction of greenhouse gases to below 1990 levels:

5.2% world wide reduction on average by 2008-2012

6% for Canada by 2008-2012

When sufficient countries ratify the Protocol (at least 55 countries comprising at least 55% of emissions), Protocol comes into effect

USA - 25% of emissions


Slide194 l.jpg

Kyoto Emissions Agreement 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)


Slide195 l.jpg

Source: Gregg Marland and Tom Boden ( 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.) CDIAC, Oak Ridge National Laboratory).


Greenhouse effect conclusion l.jpg
Greenhouse Effect - Conclusion 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

  • Since 1700, humans have directly or indirectly caused the concentration of the major greenhouse gases to increase

  • Scientists predict that this increase may enhance the greenhouse effect making the planet warmer by 0.3 to 0.6 degrees Celsius


Cost of regular gasoline l.jpg
Cost of Regular Gasoline 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

  • $3.80 – Great Britain

  • $3.80 – The Netherlands

  • $3.74 – Italy

  • $3.69 – Belgium

  • $3.62 – France

  • $3.57 – Germany

  • $3.20 – Japan

  • $1.39 – United States

    in U.S. dollars as of October 13, 1997


History of global warming l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1904: Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius was, according to NASA, "the first person to investigate the effect that doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide would have on global climate."


History of global warming199 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

Arrhenius began studying rapid increases in anthropogenic – carbon emissions, determining that "the slight percentage of carbonic acid in the atmosphere may, by the advances of industry, be changed to a noticeable degree in the course of a few centuries."


History of global warming200 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

The unique research of Arrhenius suggested that this increase could be beneficial, making Earth's climates "more equable" and stimulating plant growth and food production. Until about 1960, most scientists thought it implausible that humans could actually affect average global temperatures.


History of global warming201 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1950s: Geophysicist Roger Revelle, with the help of Hans Suess, demonstrated that carbon dioxide levels in the air had increased as a result of the use of fossil fuels.


History of global warming202 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1965: Serving on the President's Science Advisory Committee Panel on Environmental Pollution in 1965, Roger Revelle helped publish the first high-level government mention of global warming. The book-length report identified many of the environmental troubles the nation faced, and mentioned in a "subpanel report" the potential for global warming by carbon dioxide.


History of global warming203 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1977: "In 1977 the nonpartisan National Academy of Sciences issued a study called Energy and Climate, which carefully suggested that the possibility of global warming 'should lead neither to panic nor to complacency.'


History of global warming204 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

Rather, the study continued, it should 'engender a lively sense of urgency in getting on with the work of illuminating the issues that have been identified and resolving the scientific uncertainties that remain.'


History of global warming205 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

As is typical with National Academy studies, the primary recommendation was for more research." — From "Breaking the Global-Warming Gridlock" by Daniel Sarewitz and Roger Pielke Jr., THE ATLANTIC, July 2000


History of global warming206 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

Roger Revelle chaired the National Academy Panel, which found that about forty percent of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide has remained in the atmosphere, two-thirds from fossil fuel and one-third from the clearing of forests. It is now known that carbon dioxide is one of the primary greenhouse gases that contributes to global warming and remains in the atmosphere for a century.


History of global warming207 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1980s: Representative Al Gore (D-TN), who had been a student of Revelle's, co-sponsored the first Congressional hearings to study the implications of global warming and to encourage the development of environmental technologies to combat global warming.


History of global warming208 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1982: Roger Revelle published a widely-read article in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN addressing the rise in global sea level and the "relative role played by the melting of glaciers and ice sheets versus the thermal expansion of the warming surface waters."


History of global warming209 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1983: The Environmental Protection Agency released a report detailing some of the possible threats of the anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide.


History of global warming210 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1988: NASA climate scientist James Hansen and his team reported to Congress on global warming, explaining, "the greenhouse warming should be clearly identifiable in the 1990s" and that "the temperature changes are sufficiently large to have major impacts on people and other parts of the biosphere, as shown by computed changes in the frequency of extreme events and comparison with previous climate trends."


History of global warming211 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

With the increased awareness of global warming issues, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation. The IPCC was the first international effort of this scale to address environmental issues.


History of global warming212 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1990: Congress passed and President George Bush signed Public Law 101-606 "The Global Change Research Act of 1990. The purpose of the legislation was "…to require the establishment of a United States Global Change Research Program aimed at understanding and responding to global change, including the cumulative effects of human activities and natural processes on the environment, to promote discussions towards international protocols in global change research, and for other purposes."


History of global warming213 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

  • As part of the Act, the Global Change Research Information Office (GCRIO) was established "to disseminate to foreign governments, businesses, and institutions, as well as citizens of foreign countries, scientific research information available in the United States which would be useful in preventing, mitigating, or adapting to the effects of global change. The office began formal operation in 1993.


History of global warming214 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1992: In June of 1992, over 100 government leaders, representatives from 170 countries, and some 30,000 participants met in Rio de Janeiro at the U.N. Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED or the "Earth Summit").


History of global warming215 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

There, an international assembly formally recognized the need to integrate economic development and environmental protection into the goal of sustainable development.


History of global warming216 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1997: In December, 1997, more than 160 nations met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limitations on greenhouse gases for the developed nations, pursuant to the objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change of 1992.


History of global warming217 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

The outcome of the meeting was the Kyoto Protocol, in which the developed nations agreed to limit their greenhouse gas emissions, relative to the levels emitted in 1990. The United States agreed to reduce emissions from 1990 levels by 7 percent during the period 2008 to 2012.


History of global warming218 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

1997: In December, 1997, more than 160 nations met in Kyoto, Japan, to negotiate binding limitations on greenhouse gases for the developed nations, pursuant to the objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change of 1992.


History of global warming219 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

The outcome of the meeting was the Kyoto Protocol, in which the developed nations agreed to limit their greenhouse gas emissions, relative to the levels emitted in 1990.

The United States agreed to reduce emissions from 1990 levels by 7 percent during the period 2008 to 2012.


History of global warming220 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

Also that year, the United States Senate unanimously passed the Hagel-Byrd Resolution notifying the Clinton Administration that the Senate would not ratify any treaty that would (a) impose mandatory greenhouse gas emissions reductions for the United States without also imposing such reductions for developing nations, or (b) result in serious harm to our economy.


History of global warming221 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

2001: The IPCC released its third assessment report, concluding on the basis of "new and stronger evidence that most of the observed warming over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities." They also observed that "the globally averaged surface temperature is projected to increase by 1.4 to 5.8 degrees Celsius over the period 1990 to 2100."


History of global warming222 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

The same year, President George W. Bush announced that the United States would not ratify the Kyoto Protocol. The Protocol is now in limbo until one of the two crucial holdouts — Russia or the United States — will ratify the treaty.


History of global warming223 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

2003: Senator John McCain (R-AZ) and Senator Joseph Lieberman (D-CT) co-sponsored a proposal for mandatory caps on "greenhouse gas" emissions from utilities and other industries.


History of global warming224 l.jpg
History of Global Warming 50% by the year 2000 (they had been increasing 3% per year.)

Although the proposal was rejected in the Senate by a margin of 55 to 43, it was the Senators' first attempt to garner Senate attention for the issue of global warming, and McCain and Lieberman were encouraged by the support for the measure.


ad