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Does Your Message Have the Same Old Frame? . Message Framing and Health Disparities NPHIC Annual Conference September 2007. Sponsored by the Southern Center for Communication, Health & Poverty

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Does your message have the same old frame

DoesYour Message Have the Same Old Frame? 

Message Framing and Health Disparities

NPHIC Annual Conference

September 2007

Sponsored by the Southern Center for Communication, Health & Poverty

A CDC-Designated Center for Excellence in Health Communication and Marketing www.southerncenter.uga.edu

Susan D. Kirby, Dr.P.H.

[email protected]


Message framing
Message Framing

  • Gain vs. loss framing

    • Usually aimed at direct health behavior audience

  • Strategic frame analysis

    • Used for policy and societal mobilization audiences


Gain versus loss framing
Gain versus Loss Framing

  • Gain = Lives saved

  • Loss = Lives lost

  • Gain promotes risk aversion

    • Prefer small certain gains to large possible gains

    • Best for prevention behaviors

  • Loss promotes risk seeking

    • Prefer possible large/small loss to any certain loss

    • Best for detection or screening behaviors


Gain versus loss framing1
Gain versus Loss Framing

  • If ‘certain’ of screening outcome

    • Gain framing is more effective

  • If ‘uncertain’ of screening outcome

    • Loss framing is more effective

  • Pointing out health disparities

    • Creates negative reaction

  • Cultural targeting

    • Enhances effectiveness with “right” frame

    • Not more effective if combined with ‘wrong’ frame

  • More disparity research needed


Cvd versus diabetes 35 overweight aa male
CVD versus Diabetes35 Overweight AA Male

‘Uncertain’ DiabetesYou can prevent losing a leg, foot, or toe by getting tested and treated for diabetes today

‘Certain’ CVDYou can add years to your life if you get tested and treated for CVD today



How we process information
How We Process Information

  • Mental shortcuts help us make sense

  • Communication has cues about where to fit information into existing knowledge

    • Helps us connect to shortcuts or “dominant frames”

  • New information seen through dominant frames

  • Our understanding is frame-based

    • Not fact-based


Strategic frame research
Strategic Frame Research

  • Identifies deep values, beliefs, and assumptions

  • Studies their impact on policy preferences

  • Uncovers ways to change how issues are framed

    • Communication shift attitudes and behaviors


Why it matters
Why It Matters …

  • Perceptions shaped by core beliefs

  • New thinking challenges core beliefs

  • If challenged we revert to familiar

    • Makes it hard for people to hear new messages

    • We have to connect people to a different frame


By connecting an issue to an existing valued high-level frame, we can reframe how people think and feel about an issue.


‘Estate tax’ is one way to frame tax debate frame, we can reframe how people think and feel about an issue.


‘Death tax’ reframed this tax debate frame, we can reframe how people think and feel about an issue.


Framing strategy includes
Framing Strategy Includes frame, we can reframe how people think and feel about an issue.

  • Connecting issue w/ valued frame

  • Thematic not episodic context

  • Simplifying model or metaphor

  • Social math

  • Messengers

  • Visuals

  • Tone


Framing levels

Framing Levels frame, we can reframe how people think and feel about an issue.

Level One

Big ideas, like freedom, justice, community, success, responsibility

Level Two

Issue types, like the environment or child care

Level Three

Specific issues, like rainforests or earned income tax credits


Level one examples we want to live in a society that is

Authentic frame, we can reframe how people think and feel about an issue.

Caring

Committed

Community focused

Competitive

Connected to others

Increasing Knowledge

Nurturing

Positive in Outlook

Responsible

Safe/ Secure

Level One ExamplesWe want to live in a society that is …


Level two
Level Two frame, we can reframe how people think and feel about an issue.

  • Level 2 frames can focus on issues like children, elderly, education, friendship, or corporate America

  • Level 2 can also be a new or novel way of grouping issues together

    • Prisons and education

    • Children and corporate America


Building a framing story
Building a Framing Story frame, we can reframe how people think and feel about an issue.

  • Connect your issue to a Level 1 value

    • Ask what kind of world people want to live in

  • Ask what would that world look like?

    • Level 2 connected to level 1

    • Many issues can fit into Level 2 for different purposes

  • Level 3 specifies how Level 2 is achieved

  • Tell a story linking levels 1 to 2 to 3


Linking levels together
Linking Levels Together frame, we can reframe how people think and feel about an issue.

Tobacco

  • Level 1 - We want to live in a truthful society

  • Level 2 - Companies are honest about their products

  • Level 3 – Policies that require disclosure of product contents

    Cancer

  • Level 1 -  We want to live in a hopeful society

  • Level 2 - Diseases like cancer can be cured

  • Level 3 – Program to identify cancer cures


Context

Andy needed the support of others, and a solid town like Mayberry to avoid abusive situations as a single parent

Families should handle their own stuff, We should stay out of it. The family bubble.

Context


Numbers social math
Numbers – Social Math Mayberry to avoid abusive situations as a single parent

  • GOOD - In the 60s, about 11 of 25 kids walked or biked to school. By 2001, only 4 of them were getting exercise that way.

  • BETTER – Today lots of schools are ere farther away from their students. Now walking or biking to school is the equivalent of doing a 5K race or more - twice a day.


Messengers hiv and hispanic communities
Messengers Mayberry to avoid abusive situations as a single parentHIV and Hispanic Communities


Visuals what are youth doing today
Visuals Mayberry to avoid abusive situations as a single parentWhat are youth doing today?


Metaphor or model brain foundation architecture
Metaphor or Model Mayberry to avoid abusive situations as a single parentBrain Foundation = Architecture

  • Early experiences affect the architecture of the maturing brain.

  • The quality of that architecture establishes either a sturdy or a fragile foundation for all following development

  • Getting things right the first time is easier and less costly than trying to fix them later.

=


Disparity related framing the dominant frames we know
Disparity-related Framing Mayberry to avoid abusive situations as a single parentThe Dominant Frames We Know

  • Individual responsibility

    • People are the ones who decide if they smoke!

  • In-Community responsibility

    • It’s that community’s fault!

  • Poverty isn’t the problem

    • Education is problem with poor health choices!


Disparity framing research
Disparity Framing Research Mayberry to avoid abusive situations as a single parent

  • Disparity focus increases stereotyping

    • Stimulates negative reactions in all parties

  • ‘Quality of Life’ resonates

    • ‘Community conditions’ also

  • Civic wellbeing resonates

  • Cost prevention resonates


Disparity framing research1
Disparity Framing Research Mayberry to avoid abusive situations as a single parent

  • Physical and org structures are useful terms

  • Include ‘elderly as examples’

  • Stay solutions focused

    • Community needs to involved

    • Use close to home examples

  • ‘Patchwork with gaps” metaphor

    • Does not trigger stereotypes


More framing advice
More Framing Advice Mayberry to avoid abusive situations as a single parent

  • Focus messages on solutions not the problem - early in the message

  • Avoid negative stereotypes

  • Do not repeat the current ineffective frames

  • Repetition, repetition, repetition


Resources
Resources Mayberry to avoid abusive situations as a single parent

  • Getting the Biggest Bang for Your Health Education Buck: Message Framing and Reducing Health Disparities. Schneider American Behavioral Scientist. 2006; 49: 812-822

  • FrameWorks Institute Report

    • http://www.frameworksinstitute.org/clients/commhealth_civicwellbeing.pdf

  • Berkley Media Studies Group

  • Kirby Marketing Solutions at www.kirbyms.com

  • Southern Center for Communication, Health & Poverty at www.southerncenter.uga.edu


Question and answer

Question and Answer Mayberry to avoid abusive situations as a single parent

Small Group Activity


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