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Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 3 Theory, History & Criticism (Part I) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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University of Palestine Faculty of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning Dept. of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning. Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 3 Theory, History & Criticism (Part I) Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf. Primitive Architecture. Primitive (15000-20000 BC)

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Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202) Lecturer 3 Theory, History & Criticism (Part I)

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Theories of architecture eaps4202 lecturer 3 theory history criticism part i

University of Palestine

Faculty of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning

Dept. of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning

Theories of Architecture(EAPS4202)

Lecturer 3

Theory, History & Criticism (Part I)

Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 07.03.2009


Primitive architecture

Primitive Architecture

  • Primitive (15000-20000 BC)

  • The word ‘primitive’ is fundamental to the discipline of architecture in the West, providing a convenient starting point for the myth of architecture’s origins.

  • Primitive includes contributions from some of today’s leading architectural commentators and practitioners, including DaliborVesely, Adrian Forty, David Leatherbarrow, Richard Coyne, CJ Lim and Richard Weston.

  • It is structured around five sections, ‘Negotiating origins’, ‘Urban myths’, ‘Questioning colonial constructs’, ‘Making marks’, and ‘Primitive futures’, and means original highlighting ideological and spiritual thinking.

The Kanaka Village, New Caledonia,

Exposition Universelle, Paris 1889

Source: Le Monde Illustré, 27 June 1889

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Primitive architecture1

Primitive Architecture

Ancient Egypt (5000-100BC)

Style adopted:

  • Eternity believes;

  • The use of sloped walls, Cornice (horizontal decorative molding), Columns that are associated with the shapes plants and/or animals , in addition to the use of ornaments and sculptures;

  • Strong and gloom buildings;

  • Creativity in engravings (is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it), and in using colors; and

  • Lighting is feasible through doors and/or small window openings.

Egyptian vegetal entanglement

Source: Gottfried Semper, Der Stil (1860–3)

An example of a cornice along the top of the Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Building in downtown

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Primitive architecture2

Primitive Architecture

  • WEST ASIATIC (MESOPOTAMIA (4500-600 BC), PERSIA (500 BC – 1700 AC )

    Style adopted:

  • Buildings are usually made of bricks, mud and glazed bricks and decorated with architectural tiles;

  • The use of pointed and semi-circular vaults, domes;

  • Lighting is feasible through doors and small wall openings; and

  • The use of ornaments, engravings and metals (usually bronze).

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Classical architecture 1 greek period 1000 100 bc

Classical Architecture:1. Greek Period (1000-100) BC)

THE TUSCAN TEMPLE ACCORDING TO VITRUVIUS.

Style adopted:

  • Known as Vitruvius Architecture highlighting the principles of order , arrangement, eurhythmy (beauty), symmetry and propriety (perfection) and economy;

  • The use of large scale stones, stone lintels and the use of vaults;

  • It emphasizes a very fine architecture based on proportions and details;

  • It looks at approaching issues of optical illusion;

  • Columns styles used are : Doric , Ionic and Corinthian;

  • It uses sculptures, engravings and ornaments; and

  • The often use of colors through paints.

VITRUVIUS' DORIC ORDER COMPARED WITH THE TEMPLE AT CORI AND THE DORIC ORDER OF THE THEATRE OF MARCELLUS

5.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Classical architecture 2 roman period

Classical Architecture:2. Roman Period

Style adopted:

  • Buildings categories are: Theatres, Forum and Baths;

  • The use of Greek columns styles, in addition to Tuscan and Composite;

  • The use of concrete;

  • The use of coffered domes and vaults;

  • It adopts cladding with tiles; and

  • The style much emphasizes strength, majesty, and Great structures.

A TYPICAL ROMAN Theatre

A TYPICAL ROMAN Bath

PLAN OF A TYPICAL ROMAN HOUSE

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Christian architecture 1 byzantine period 350 1850 ac

Christian Architecture:1. Byzantine Period (350-1850 AC)

Style adopted:

  • The use of colored/red marble for columns with bronze annulets. The architecture of the time focused on church’s buildings, (e.g. basilican churches) with atrium & various antique sculptures;

  • The use of vast domes with drum, and semi-domes; and

  • The use of mosaic, ornamentation and picturesque arts (in an exaggeration manner).

The dome is constructed with ribs of brick converging Conon a ring in the centre, and springing from forty piers set on radiating lines, the panels between dome rib and rib being also of brick.

S. SOPHIA-CONSTANTINOPLE

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Christian architecture 2 romanesque 550 1150 ac

Christian Architecture:2. Romanesque (550 – 1150 AC)

Style adopted:

  • All work is bound with circular arches and vaults;

  • It embodies Equilibrium concept within structures;

  • The use of vaults with ribs and panels;

  • Quadripartite and sexpartite vaults;

  • New elements emerged such as:

    Campanile – Porch – Wheel ( rose ) window.

  • Ornamentation is derived from animals and plants;

  • The use of fresco;

  • Sculptures are used within walls and vaults; and

  • Pictures of priests are often illustrated as decoration.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008

S. Paolo Church


Christian architecture 3 gothic 1150 1500ac

Christian Architecture:3. Gothic (1150 – 1500AC)

Style adopted:

  • Pointed arches are used to cover rectangular areas;

  • Equilibrium in structures;

  • The use of ribs and panels as well as flying buttresses;

  • The emphasis is on high and ambitious spaces;

  • The use of stained glass windows;

  • Ornaments ( structure ) and ornamentation; and

  • Expression of freedom and religious compromise.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Islamic architecture 650 ac now

Islamic Architecture (650 AC – Now)

Style adopted:

  • New building types emerged;

  • Privacy ( small openings – entrance – spaces);

  • Ornaments : the use of stalactites (Mukarnas ) – Forbidden to shape human beings, therefore, creativity in geometric and linear ornaments (Arabesque );

  • Engravings in stone and wood; and

  • Other elements: Mashrabya, Mosaics, Calligraphy .

Cluster Approach

Court Yard

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Classical theory of forms renaissance 1400 1800 ac

Classical Theory of Forms:Renaissance (1400-1800 AC)

  • Originally started in Italy (and in particular, Florence, Rome and Venice) spreading out all over the world;

  • The born of new social class, especially wealthy class having freedom of thought;

  • Revival of previous classical and traditional styles;

  • Established by artists, neither by architects nor by structural engineers. Therefore, interest of shape, proportions, and architecture started at the time to be an essential part of fine arts;

  • Symmetrical plans and elevations regardless of function and utility;

  • Use of massive walls, made of stone with gradation from rough to smooth texture;

  • Semi-circular vaults and small semi-circular openings in lower stories; and

  • The use of column’ styles that are massive in size largely using drummed domes.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Industrial revolution mid 18 th century

Industrial RevolutionMid 18th Century

  • The period is characterized by the use of machines, advocating industry with the result of mass and/or rapid production instead of handicrafts;

  • Accordingly, there was the use of manufactured building materials and adopting new building techniques, building upon modern architecture;

  • The period places emphasis on an increase of population (within 130 years the inhabitants of England rose from 9 to 45 millions), urbanization therefore spread out (in 1871, as for instance, 64% of the Germans were living in the countryside and 5% in urban areas. By the contrast, in 1933, only 33 % of the population were living in the countryside and 30 % in the urban areas);

  • New building types emerged: such as, factories, shops, administrative buildings, highways, stations, bridges, exhibitions, hospitals & etc; and

  • The emergence of industrial towns.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


19 th century architecture

19th Century Architecture

General features of the century:

  • The 19th Century was rich in music, painting, novel and poetry. However, it did not develop any characteristic associated to architectural forms, both in spatial composition and urban planning; and

  • The century much emphasizes both cultural and technical transformations.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


19 th century architecture1

19th Century Architecture

  • CULTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS :

    Neo- classical architecturehas emerged of two different but closely related developments:

    • A sudden increase in human being capacity to exercise control over nature;

    • The fundamental shift occurred in the nature of human consciousness in response to major changes taking place within the society; and

    • Architects at the time began to look for a true style through the re-appraisal of antiquity.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


19 th century architecture2

19th Century Architecture

  • CULTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS: The style adopted is Neo- classical architecture

  • Architects of the style adopted:

  • Boullee: Geometrical purity of monumental (directly associated with that of heritage)form. (Modern Movement )

  • The Modern Monument/Movement has its focus on building projects that were rational, functional, innovative and rich, with strong political and cultural identities—futuristic in all senses, and at all costs, and bathing in an optimistic faith in progress.

Boulee, project for a cenotaph for Isaac Newton

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


19 th century architecture neo classical architecture

19th Century Architecture Neo- classical architecture

  • Architects of the style adopted:

    • Durand: Economic and appropriate structures could be created through the modular alteration of fixed plan types providing alternative elevations.

    • Labrouste: The primacy of structure and the derivation of all ornaments from construction (structural rationalism) - Structural classicism of Labrouste .

    • Choisy 1899 : The essence of architecture is mainly construction. To exhibit arts is by ignoring the whole teaching of history.

    • Schinkel:Romantic classicism – trends to stress the physiognomic aspect (reflection of inner character) of the form.

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008

Durand- modular forms


19 th century architecture neo classical architecture1

19th Century Architecture Neo- classical architecture

System buildings from prefabricated components

  • TECHNICAL TRANSFORMATIONS : STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING :

    • Bridges (in 1779, the first cast iron bridge (30m) , in 1786 Tom Pain designed a monument to the American revolution cast iron bridge that made in England (71 m). In 1801, a bridge over the Thames river by Thomas Telford ( 180m). Bridge projects usually uses cast iron (compression strength).

    • Joseph Paxton: Crystal Palace in 1851- consists solely of steel and glass – a huge structure that was built in 4 months only.

    • Gustave Eiffel: Eiffel tower in 1889 , the monument to modern movement (300 m).

    • Steel buildings with large spans of steel, bridges, train stations , highways, & etc.

Crystal Palace

The emergence of railway & industry in 19th century

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


19 th century architecture3

19th Century Architecture

Historical Development

  • 1st quarter: developed underground, bridges, roads, sewage, canal systems & lighting.

  • Mid Century: Victorian style and wandering, eclecticism, neo-classicism, gothic revival (Sir Charles Barry – the House of Parliament (1840-65), Beaux-Arts (Opera house in Paris by Charles Granier), construction using the materials of iron, steel and glass. The Modern Movement actually started after WWar II and has its impact until now.

  • Late century: civilization reached a very low level in design, excessive ornaments and a cross misunderstanding of mass production. As a result, reactions were motivated by, for instance, William Morris – English Arts and Crafts movement (1850-1914 ).

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Summary

Summary

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


Summary1

Summary

Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 17.06.2008


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