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PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AND THE SERVICESCAPE Chapter 10






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PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AND THE SERVICESCAPE Chapter 10. Donna J. Hill, Ph.D. Service Marketing Spring 2000. Servicescape. Physical facility ---(interior & exterior) Ambient conditions ---(temp. colors, noises, smells) Other tangibles. Table 10-1 Elements of Physical Evidence.
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AND THE SERVICESCAPE Chapter 10

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Slide 1

PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AND THE SERVICESCAPEChapter 10

Donna J. Hill, Ph.D.

Service Marketing

Spring 2000

Slide 2

Servicescape

  • Physical facility ---(interior & exterior)

  • Ambient conditions ---(temp. colors, noises, smells)

  • Other tangibles

Slide 3

Table 10-1Elements of Physical Evidence

Slide 4

Impact of Service Environment

  • Purchase decision

  • Expectations

  • Service quality evaluations

  • Satisfaction

Slide 5

Table 10-2 Examples of Physical Evidence from the Customer’s Point of View

Slide 6

Table 10-3 Typology of Service Organizations Based on Variations in Form and Use of the Servicescape

Slide 7

Roles of the Servicescape

  • Package

  • Facilitator

  • Socialize

  • Differentiator

Slide 8

Figure 10-3A Framework for UnderstandingEnvironment-user Relationships in Service Organizations

HOLISTIC

ENVIRONMENT

INTERNAL

RESPONSES

BEHAVIOR

PHYSICAL

ENVIRONMENTAL

DIMENSIONS

Cognitive

Emotional

Physiological

Individual Behaviors

Employee Responses

Ambient Conditions

Space/Function

Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts

Perceived

Servicescape

Social Interactions between and among customer and employees

Customer Responses

Individual Behaviors

Cognitive

Emotional

Physiological

Source: Adapted from Mary Jo Bitner, “Servicescapes.”

Slide 9

Framework for Understanding Servicescape Effects on Behavior

  • Internal Responses

    • Cognitive --- knowledge structure

    • Affective ---feelings & emotions

    • Physiological--- changes in

Slide 10

Knowledge Structures

  • Beliefs

  • Categorization

  • Symbolic Meaning

Slide 11

Emotional

  • Mood

  • Attitude

Slide 12

Affective Responses

Arousing

Distressing

Exciting

Unpleasant

Pleasant

Gloomy

Relaxing

Sleeping

Slide 13

Physiological Responses

  • Heart beat rate

  • Pupil dilation

  • Tears

  • Perspiration

  • Pain

Slide 14

Physiological Responses

Cognitive

Physiological

Behavioral

Affective

Slide 15

Individual Behaviors Created by Servicescape

  • Approach behaviors

  • Avoidance behaviors

  • Arousal seekers

  • Arousal avoiders

  • Environmental stimuli screeners

  • Environmental stimuli nonscreeners

Slide 16

Social Interactions

  • Between and among customers and employees

Slide 17

Environmental Dimensions

  • Ambient Conditions

  • Spatial Layout and Functionality

  • Signs, Symbols and Artifacts

Slide 18

Perceptions of Crowding

  • Environmental cues

  • Shopping motives

  • Constraints

  • Expectations of crowding

Slide 19

Affective reactions

Reduce browsing

Adjust purchases

Reduce interaction with employees

Less confidence in purchase decision

Dissatisfied with experience

Reduce image of firm

Modify future purchase intentions

Impact of Crowding

Short-term

Long-term

Slide 20

Maximizing the Service Environment

1. Recognize strategic impact.

2. Blueprint

3. Clarify roles of the Servicescape

4. Assess and identify physical evidence

opportunities.

5. Update and modernize

.

Slide 21

Servicescape Positioning

Cost Efficiency

Firm

(Technical)

Employees

Customers

Service

Quality

Customization

(Functional)

Slide 22

Customization

Functional Service

Technical Service

Cost Efficiency

Meet Needs of Customers

Meet needs of customers

Maximize employee efficiency

Reduce costs and increase productivity

Objectives and Goals

Slide 23

Choosing the Location

  • Operational Position

  • Merchantability

  • Traffic interception

  • Cumulative competitive attraction

  • Competitive compatibility

  • Accessibility

Slide 24

Physical Facility

  • Exterior Appearance

  • Interior Appearance

  • Ambient Conditions

  • Interpersonal Factors

  • Employee Appearance

  • Employee Behavior

Cost Efficiency: Maximize efficiency & productivity.

Customization: Focus on customers.

Technical SQ..: Maximize quality of technical output.

Functional SQ..: Maximize quality of customer

interaction.

Slide 25

Strategies to Reduce Impact of Crowding

Operations Management:

1. Modify layout of facility.

2. Reduce capacity of facility.

3. Control number of customers in facility.

4. Hire more customer contact personnel.

Perceptions Management:

1. Use signs.

2. Modify ambient conditions.

Slide 26

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