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Western Europe at the End of the 19 th Century. World History: 1750 - Present. Western Europe. Britain. Britain. In the early 1800s, only 5% of British citizens had the right to vote Catholics and Protestants that were not members of the Church of England could not vote or hold office.

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Western europe at the end of the 19 th century

Western Europe at the End of the 19th Century

World History: 1750 - Present



Britain1
Britain

  • In the early 1800s, only 5% of British citizens had the right to vote

  • Catholics and Protestants that were not members of the Church of England could not vote or hold office


Britain2
Britain

  • There were two main political parties in Britain: Whig and Tory

  • The Whig Party largely represented middle-class and business interests


Britain3
Britain

  • The Tory Party represented nobles, landowners, and agricultural interests

  • The people of Britain pressured the two parties to pass the Reform Act of 1832


Britain4
Britain

  • The Reform Act of 1832 gave all landowners the right to vote

  • It also took away religious restrictions


Britain5
Britain

  • Some British citizens demanded more reform

  • The reformers were known as Chartists, because they created the People’s Charter


Britain6
Britain

  • The People’s Charter called for universal male suffrage and a secret ballot

  • The Chartists tried 3 times to get their Charter passed, but each time it was rejected by the British parliament


Britain7
Britain

  • In 1837, Britain crowned a new ruler: Queen Victoria

  • Queen Victoria ruled from 1837 to 1901

  • Her reign was known as the Victorian Age


Britain8
Britain

  • The Victorian Age was characterized by respectability and formality

  • It was not isolated to Britain, because the influence of Queen Victoria spread across the world

  • Why?


Britain9
Britain

  • Britain was the largest empire in the world and had over 300 million subjects


Britain10
Britain

  • Change came to Britain’s political parties in the 1860s

  • Under the leadership of Benjamin Disraeli, the Tories became the Conservative Party


Britain11
Britain

  • The Whigs, led by William Gladstone, became the Liberal Party

  • Between 1868 and 1880, Gladstone and Disraeli alternated as Prime Minister


Britain12
Britain

  • The Conservative Party worked to give industrial workers the right to vote

  • The Liberal Party countered by giving farm-workers the right to vote


Britain13
Britain

  • By the end of the 19th Century (1800s), Britain had transformed from a monarchy to a parliamentary democracy


Britain14
Britain

  • Parliamentary Democracy: a form of government in which a prime minister and his cabinet are voted on by the legislature



Ireland1
Ireland

  • The British had begun conquering Ireland in the 1100s

  • By the 1600s, British and Scottish settlers had colonized all of Ireland and owned the best farmland


Ireland2
Ireland

  • The Irish people resented the English settlers, especially absentee landlords

  • Absentee landlords: owners of large estates that lived elsewhere


Ireland3
Ireland

  • Most Irish peasants lived in poverty, while paying high rents to landlords living in England

  • Absentee landlords could evict tenants at will

  • British laws forbade to teaching and speaking of the Irish language


Ireland4
Ireland

  • Most Irish were Catholic, but were forced to pay tithes to support the Church of England

  • Also, Catholics could not vote or hold office


Ireland5
Ireland

  • Resistance and rebellion were common, but were always defeated

  • In 1829, the British Parliament passed the Catholic Emancipation Act, which allowed Catholic landowners to vote and hold office


Ireland6
Ireland

  • Also, most Irish crops were exported out of the country

  • The potato was the main source of food for most Irish people


Ireland7
Ireland

  • In 1845, a disease struck the potato crops in Ireland, destroying most of the potatoes

  • British landowners continued to ship the other crops out of the country, leaving little for the Irish


Ireland8
Ireland

  • The famine lasted almost four years

  • In that time, almost 1 million men, women, and children died of starvation and disease


Ireland9
Ireland

  • Many more Irish citizens immigrated to America and Canada

  • Irish resentment toward the British grew deeper


Ireland10
Ireland

  • In the 1870s, Charles Stewart Parnell, an Irish nationalist, began fighting for home rule

  • Home rule: rule in which the people of a country rule domestic issues, while another country rules foreign matters


Ireland11
Ireland

  • In 1914, the British Parliament passed a home rule bill for the Irish

  • Parliament delayed putting the new law into effect when World War I broke out later that year


Ireland12
Ireland

  • It was not until 1921, that the southern counties of Ireland finally became independent



France1
France

  • France’s history is littered with scandals

  • One of the most divisive scandals began in 1894


France2
France

  • In 1894, Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish, high-ranking army officer, was accused of spying for Germany

  • During his military trial, neither Dreyfus or his attorney were allowed to see the evidence against him


France3
France

  • This injustice was rooted in anti-Semitism

  • Anti-Semitism: hatred against the Jewish people


France4
France

  • Dreyfus was hated by many of the military elite because he was the first Jew to become a high ranking officer


France5
France

  • He proclaimed his innocence, but was convicted and condemned to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island, a French penal colony off the coast of South America


France6
France

  • Two years later, in 1896, new evidence pointed to another officer, Ferdinand Esterhazy, as the spy

  • Still, the army refused to grant Dreyfus a new trial


France7
France

  • This scandal, known as the Dreyfus Affair, scarred France for decades

  • Royalists and Church officials charged Dreyfus supporters with undermining France


France8
France

  • Dreyfusards, supporters of Dreyfus, screamed of injustice, but were often met with public and political anger

  • Those who wrote against the army were charged with libel and some were forced into exile


France9
France

  • Libel: the knowing publication of false and damaging statements

  • The Dreyfus case reflected anti-Semitic feelings across Europe


France10
France

  • The Dreyfus Affair and other injustices against Jewish people stirred nationalist feelings

  • Theodor Herzl, a Hungarian Jewish journalist living in France, called for a separate Jewish state


France11
France

  • This movement, which called for a Jewish state to be built in Palestine, was known as Zionism

  • In 1897, Herzl organized the First Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland



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