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Complex Cognitive Processes. Magdalena Mulvihill. The problem Solving model. Represent the problem. Select a strategy. Identify the problem. Implement the strategy. Evaluate the results. Well defined problem.

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Complex cognitive processes

Complex Cognitive Processes

Magdalena Mulvihill



Represent the problem

Select

a

strategy

Identify the problem

Implement the strategy

Evaluate the results




But… method of finding it.

Even though some teachers claim that they explain the problem well

some students think different


Ill defined method of finding it.


A problem that has more than one acceptable solution, an ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution


$2.00 per cookie or per pound ? ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

=6

2+2+2=6


Algorithm ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

A specific set of steps for solving a problem


heuristics ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

GENERALY, WIDELY

APPLICABLE

PROBLEM SOLVING

STRATEGIES


THERE ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

IS A

DIFFERENCE

IN

PROBLEM

SOLVING

ABILITY

BETWEEN

EXPERTS

AND NOVICES


BECAUSE ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

EXPERTS

ARE

INDIVIDUALS…

…WHO ARE HIGHLY

SKILLED OR

KNOWLEDGEABLE

IN A GIVEN DOMAIN


There exist four important differences between novices and experts
THERE EXIST FOUR ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solutionIMPORTANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NOVICES AND EXPERTS


When representing problems
When REPRESENTING PROBLEMS ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

1

EXPERTS

SEARCH FOR CONTEXT AND

RELATIONSHIP IN PROBLEMS

NOVICES

SEE PROBLEMS IN ISOLATED PIECES


Problem solving efficiency
PROBLEM-SOLVING EFFICIENCY ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

2

EXPERTS

SOLVE PROBLEMS RAPIDLY AND POSSES

MUCH KNOWLEDGE THAT IS AUTHOMATIC

NOVICES

SOLVE PROBLEMS SLOWLY AND FOCUS ON MECANICS


When planning for problem solving
When PLANNING FOR PROBLEM SOLVING ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

3

EXPERTS

PLAN CAREFULLY BEFORE ATTEMPTING SOLUTIONS

TO UNFAMILIAR PROBLEMS

NOVICES

PLAN BRIEFLY WHEN ATTEMPTING SOLUTIONS TO UNFAMILIAR PROBLEMS;

QUICKLY ADOPT AND TRY SOLUTIONS


When monitoring problem solving
When MONITORING PROBLEM SOLVING ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

4

EXPERTS

DEMONSTRATE WELL-DEVELOPED METACOGNITIVE ABILITIES; ABANDON INEFICIENT STRATEGIES

NOVICES

DEMONSTRATE LIMITED METACOGNITION; PERSEVERE WITH UNPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES


STEPS ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

IN HELPING

LEARNERS

BECOME

BETTER

PROBLEM

SOLVERS


1. ambiguous goal, and no generally agreed upon strategy for reaching a solution

PRESENTATION

OF PROBLEMS


PRESESNTATION OF PROBLEM IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT ENCOURAGES LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM


WHEN PRESENTING REMEMBER TO LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM

1. START IN MININGFULL TERMS

2. RELATE IT TO A FAMILIAR

PROBLEM

3. PROVIDE EXAMPLES IN A

REAL-WORLD CONTEXT

PROMOTING MININGFULL

LEARNING

4. REPRESENT IT VISUALY


2. LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM

SOCIAL INTERACTION


When presenting real world problems promote high levels LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM

of interaction to actively engage students in analyzing

problem situations


3. LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM

SCAFOLDING METHODS

  • - Modeling

  • - Thinking aloud

  • - Questioning

  • Adapting

  • instructional

  • materials


EFECTIVE LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM STRATEGIES

  • NOTE TAKING

  • MAPPING

  • USING TEXT SIGNALS

  • SUMMARIZING

  • ELABORATIVE

  • QUESTIONING


TRANSFER LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM

OF

KNOWLEDGE


GENERAL TRANSFER LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM

THE ABILITY TO APPLY

KNOWLEDGE OR

SKILLS LEARNED IN ONE

CONTEXT IN A VARIETY

OF DIFFERENT CONTEXTS

SPECIFIC TRANSFER

THE ABILITY TO APPLY

INFORMATION

IN A CONTEXT SIMILAR

TO THE ONE IN WHICH

IT WAS ORIGINALLY

LEARNED


FACTORS LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM

AFFECTING

LEARNING

SITUATIONS


1. LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERMSIMILARITY BETWEEN LEARNING

SITUATIONS

2. DEPTH OF LEARNERS’ ORIGINAL

UNDERSTANDING

3. QUALITY AND VARIETY OF EXAMPLES

AND OTHER LEARNING EXPERIENCES

4. LEARNING CONTEXT

5. EMPHASIS ON METACOGNITION


∏ ∏ LEARNERS TO CONCEPTUALIZE IT IN FAMILIAR TERM

THE END


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