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United Nations University Fisheries Training Programme (UNU-FTP) Iceland. Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (MFAR) Sri Lanka. Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) Iceland. Strategies. Project Cycle Management -----

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United Nations University Fisheries Training Programme (UNU-FTP)


Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (MFAR)

Sri Lanka

Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA)



Project Cycle Management


A short training course in project cycle management for

subdivisions of MFAR in Sri Lanka


Content of this lecture
Content of this lecture (UNU-FTP)

  • Evolution of a business strategy

  • Strategies of non-profit organizations

  • Mandates and policies

  • Strategic processes

  • Visions, missions and objectives

  • Strategic planning

  • Performance measures and targets

Learning objectives
Learning objectives (UNU-FTP)

  • After this lecture participants will be familiar with the strategic hierarchy of a vision, mission, objectives and targets, and the importance of strategic planning

The harvard policy model
The Harvard policy model take you there.”


Two important approaches to strategy
Two important approaches to strategy take you there.”

  • Market based view

    • Competitors analysis

    • Positioning products and services in the market

  • Resource based view

    • Seeking sustainable advantage building on resources

    • Core competences

Mandates of non profit organizations
Mandates of non-profit organizations take you there.”

  • Set by

    • Specific laws or acts of the organization

    • Regulations regarding the operations of the organization or the services offered

    • Articles of the association

  • Often states the purpose of the organization

  • Long time-horizon

The five tasks of strategic management

Task 1 take you there.”

Task 2

Task 3

Task 4

Task 5

Develop a



& Mission



Craft a


to Achieve



& Execute


Evaluate & Make Corrections

Revise as


Revise as







as Needed

The five tasksof strategic management

Why have a mission or strategic vision
Why have a mission or take you there.”strategic vision?

  • Power of a well-conceived strategic vision

    • Guides managerial decision-making

    • Arouses employee buy-in and commitment

    • Prepares an organization for the future

    • Keepsstrategy-related actions of managers on a common path

The vision
The vision take you there.”

  • Charts an organization’s future strategic course

    • Defines the organizational makeup in 5 to 10 years

  • Organization specific, not general

    • Provides an organization with its own special identity and path to follow

  • Requires the exercise of management foresight

The mission
The mission take you there.”

  • A good business definition incorporates three factors

    • Stakeholders needs-- WHAT is being satisfied

    • Stakeholders groups-- WHO is being satisfied

    • Technologies used and functions performed-- HOW stakeholder needs are satisfied

Establishing objectives
Establishing objectives take you there.”

  • Sets of actions that will realize the organizational vision

  • Represent commitment to achieve specific performance targets by a certain time

  • Must be stated in quantifiable terms and contain a deadline for achievement

  • Spell-out how much of what kind of performance by when

Purpose of objectives
Purpose of objectives take you there.”

  • Substitutes results-oriented decision-making for aimlessness over what to accomplish

  • Provides benchmarks for judging organizational performance

Benefits of objectives
Benefits of objectives take you there.”

Organizations whose managers set objectives for each key result area and then press forward with actions aimed directly at achieving these performance outcomes typically outperform organizations whose managers exhibit good intentions, try hard, and hope for the best!

Strategic planning

Strategic planning take you there.”

A disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does, and why it does it

Strategic planning short definition
Strategic planning take you there.”(short definition)

“The process of building a vision and the means to carry it out”“Strategic Planning and the Non Profit Board” by Dabney G. Park, Jr.

Integrated planning

3-10 years take you there.”

  • Strategic

1-3 years



1 year or less

Integrated planning

Strategic planning vs long term planning
Strategic planning take you there.”vs.long-term planning

  • Long-term planning generally involves development of a plan for accomplishing a goal or set of goals over a period of years assuming predictable, fairly static conditions

  • Strategic planning assumes the need to be responsive to a dynamic, changing environment

    • From:Alliance for Non-Profit Management 2002

Steps in strategic planning
Steps in strategic planning take you there.”

  • Initiating and agreeing on a planning process

  • Identify organizational mandates

  • Establish an effective organizational vision for the future

  • Clarify organizational mission and values

  • Assess the external environment

  • Analyze opportunities and threats

Steps in strategic planning1
Steps in strategic planning take you there.”

  • Assess the internal environment: Revenue and cost structures - Strengths and weaknesses

  • Identify key strategic issues

  • Formulate strategies to manage issues

  • Plans for use, review, and updating

The fit
The fit take you there.”

What do you

intend to do?




What is needed and

feasible in your

service area?



What are you

capable of doing?


from “Strategic Planning Notebook”, Wilder Foundation

Why initiate strategic planning
Why initiate strategic planning? take you there.”

  • To clarify future direction

  • To survive and flourish

  • To solve organizational problems

  • To build teamwork

  • To direct the organization’s future

What can planning do for you
What can planning do for you? take you there.”

  • Promotes self assessment and continuous improvement

  • Positioning for future success

  • Provides framework for decision making; helps make tradeoffs explicit

  • Promotes feasibility testing

  • Demonstrates stewardship of resources/ responsiveness to needs

What do good plans look like
What do “good” plans look like? take you there.”

  • “Fit” with need and organizational context

  • Well documented

  • Includes strategic, operational and tactical components as appropriate

  • Involvement/communication plan

  • Clear accountability for implementation

  • Plan for follow-up and use

  • Timeframe and means for updating

Planning advice
Planning advice take you there.”

  • Stay flexible and adaptable. Remember that planning and life often do occur simultaneously

  • Remember that different groups view a planning process differently at different times

    From: Strategic Planning: A Human Resource Tool for Higher Education. College and University Personnel Association. 121 pp.

Planning pitfalls
Planning pitfalls take you there.”

  • Regarding the plan as an endpoint

  • Regarding the plan as unalterable

  • Failing to question assumptions

  • Failing to gain organizational commitment

  • Adopting the wrong goals

  • Imposing unnecessary limitations

    From: Gordon, G.L. 1993. Strategic Planning for Local Government, International City/County Management Association. 119 pp.

When not to initiate strategic planning
When not to initiate take you there.”strategic planning.

  • When facing an organizational crisis

  • When there is no leadership buy-in

  • When implementation is unlikely

  • When costs outweigh benefits

What needs to be measured
What needs to be measured take you there.”

  • Is derived from what needs to be accomplished – strategy!

  • There needs to be a balance (not too many measures) and focus (measures that reflect strategy

  • Trends are more important than the value of a particular measure

Performance measures
Performance measures take you there.”

Combination of:

  • Leading and lagging measures

  • Financial & non-financial measures

  • Input, process, output and outcome measures

  • Internal & external measures

Performance measures should help us decide

Are we doing the right things? take you there.”






Input: Resources, including budget and workforce

Process: Activities, efforts, workflow

Output: Products and services produced

Outcome: Results, accomplishments, impacts

Performance measures should help us decide:

Are we doing things right?




Identify targets
Identify targets take you there.”

  • When targets are used, performance improves

  • Use “stretch” targets

Performance measures problems
Performance measures problems take you there.”

  • Too many measures and no focus

  • Entrenched or no measurement systems

  • Unjustified trust in informal feedback systems

  • Fuzzy objectives

References take you there.”

  • Lynch, Richard (2006). Corporate Strategy: 4th Edition. FT Prentice Hall; New York

  • Thompson, Arthur A. Jr.; Strickland III, A. J.; Gamble, John E. (2006) Crafting and Executing Strategy. Irwin Professional Pub Dimensions; Burr Ridge, Illinois, U.S.A.