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United Nations University Fisheries Training Programme (UNU-FTP) Iceland. Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (MFAR) Sri Lanka. Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) Iceland. Strategies. Project Cycle Management -----

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strategies

United Nations University Fisheries Training Programme (UNU-FTP)

Iceland

Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (MFAR)

Sri Lanka

Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA)

Iceland

Strategies

Project Cycle Management

-----

A short training course in project cycle management for

subdivisions of MFAR in Sri Lanka

MFAR, ICEIDA and UNU-FTP

content of this lecture
Content of this lecture
  • Evolution of a business strategy
  • Strategies of non-profit organizations
  • Mandates and policies
  • Strategic processes
  • Visions, missions and objectives
  • Strategic planning
  • Performance measures and targets
learning objectives
Learning objectives
  • After this lecture participants will be familiar with the strategic hierarchy of a vision, mission, objectives and targets, and the importance of strategic planning
two important approaches to strategy
Two important approaches to strategy
  • Market based view
    • Competitors analysis
    • Positioning products and services in the market
  • Resource based view
    • Seeking sustainable advantage building on resources
    • Core competences
mandates of non profit organizations
Mandates of non-profit organizations
  • Set by
    • Specific laws or acts of the organization
    • Regulations regarding the operations of the organization or the services offered
    • Articles of the association
  • Often states the purpose of the organization
  • Long time-horizon
the five tasks of strategic management

Task 1

Task 2

Task 3

Task 4

Task 5

Develop a

Strategic

Vision

& Mission

Set

Objectives

Craft a

Strategy

to Achieve

Objectives

Implement

& Execute

Strategy

Evaluate & Make Corrections

Revise as

Needed

Revise as

Needed

Improve/

Change

Improve/

Change

Recycle

as Needed

The five tasksof strategic management
why have a mission or strategic vision
Why have a mission orstrategic vision?
  • Power of a well-conceived strategic vision
    • Guides managerial decision-making
    • Arouses employee buy-in and commitment
    • Prepares an organization for the future
    • Keepsstrategy-related actions of managers on a common path
the vision
The vision
  • Charts an organization’s future strategic course
    • Defines the organizational makeup in 5 to 10 years
  • Organization specific, not general
    • Provides an organization with its own special identity and path to follow
  • Requires the exercise of management foresight
the mission
The mission
  • A good business definition incorporates three factors
    • Stakeholders needs-- WHAT is being satisfied
    • Stakeholders groups-- WHO is being satisfied
    • Technologies used and functions performed-- HOW stakeholder needs are satisfied
establishing objectives
Establishing objectives
  • Sets of actions that will realize the organizational vision
  • Represent commitment to achieve specific performance targets by a certain time
  • Must be stated in quantifiable terms and contain a deadline for achievement
  • Spell-out how much of what kind of performance by when
purpose of objectives
Purpose of objectives
  • Substitutes results-oriented decision-making for aimlessness over what to accomplish
  • Provides benchmarks for judging organizational performance
benefits of objectives
Benefits of objectives

Organizations whose managers set objectives for each key result area and then press forward with actions aimed directly at achieving these performance outcomes typically outperform organizations whose managers exhibit good intentions, try hard, and hope for the best!

strategic planning

Strategic planning

A disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does, and why it does it

strategic planning short definition
Strategic planning(short definition)

“The process of building a vision and the means to carry it out”“Strategic Planning and the Non Profit Board” by Dabney G. Park, Jr.

integrated planning

3-10 years

  • Strategic

1-3 years

Operational

Tactical

1 year or less

Integrated planning
strategic planning vs long term planning
Strategic planning vs.long-term planning
  • Long-term planning generally involves development of a plan for accomplishing a goal or set of goals over a period of years assuming predictable, fairly static conditions
  • Strategic planning assumes the need to be responsive to a dynamic, changing environment
    • From:Alliance for Non-Profit Management 2002
steps in strategic planning
Steps in strategic planning
  • Initiating and agreeing on a planning process
  • Identify organizational mandates
  • Establish an effective organizational vision for the future
  • Clarify organizational mission and values
  • Assess the external environment
  • Analyze opportunities and threats
steps in strategic planning1
Steps in strategic planning
  • Assess the internal environment: Revenue and cost structures - Strengths and weaknesses
  • Identify key strategic issues
  • Formulate strategies to manage issues
  • Plans for use, review, and updating
the fit
The fit

What do you

intend to do?

MISSION

OPPORTUNITIES/

THREATS

What is needed and

feasible in your

service area?

STRENGTHS/

WEAKNESSES

What are you

capable of doing?

THE “FIT”

from “Strategic Planning Notebook”, Wilder Foundation

why initiate strategic planning
Why initiate strategic planning?
  • To clarify future direction
  • To survive and flourish
  • To solve organizational problems
  • To build teamwork
  • To direct the organization’s future
what can planning do for you
What can planning do for you?
  • Promotes self assessment and continuous improvement
  • Positioning for future success
  • Provides framework for decision making; helps make tradeoffs explicit
  • Promotes feasibility testing
  • Demonstrates stewardship of resources/ responsiveness to needs
what do good plans look like
What do “good” plans look like?
  • “Fit” with need and organizational context
  • Well documented
  • Includes strategic, operational and tactical components as appropriate
  • Involvement/communication plan
  • Clear accountability for implementation
  • Plan for follow-up and use
  • Timeframe and means for updating
planning advice
Planning advice
  • Stay flexible and adaptable. Remember that planning and life often do occur simultaneously
  • Remember that different groups view a planning process differently at different times

From: Strategic Planning: A Human Resource Tool for Higher Education. College and University Personnel Association. 121 pp.

planning pitfalls
Planning pitfalls
  • Regarding the plan as an endpoint
  • Regarding the plan as unalterable
  • Failing to question assumptions
  • Failing to gain organizational commitment
  • Adopting the wrong goals
  • Imposing unnecessary limitations

From: Gordon, G.L. 1993. Strategic Planning for Local Government, International City/County Management Association. 119 pp.

when not to initiate strategic planning
When not to initiate strategic planning.
  • When facing an organizational crisis
  • When there is no leadership buy-in
  • When implementation is unlikely
  • When costs outweigh benefits
what needs to be measured
What needs to be measured
  • Is derived from what needs to be accomplished – strategy!
  • There needs to be a balance (not too many measures) and focus (measures that reflect strategy
  • Trends are more important than the value of a particular measure
performance measures
Performance measures

Combination of:

  • Leading and lagging measures
  • Financial & non-financial measures
  • Input, process, output and outcome measures
  • Internal & external measures
performance measures should help us decide

Are we doing the right things?

(What?)

Input

Output

Outcome

Process

Input: Resources, including budget and workforce

Process: Activities, efforts, workflow

Output: Products and services produced

Outcome: Results, accomplishments, impacts

Performance measures should help us decide:

Are we doing things right?

(How?)

Effective

Efficient

identify targets
Identify targets
  • When targets are used, performance improves
  • Use “stretch” targets
performance measures problems
Performance measures problems
  • Too many measures and no focus
  • Entrenched or no measurement systems
  • Unjustified trust in informal feedback systems
  • Fuzzy objectives
references
References
  • Lynch, Richard (2006). Corporate Strategy: 4th Edition. FT Prentice Hall; New York
  • Thompson, Arthur A. Jr.; Strickland III, A. J.; Gamble, John E. (2006) Crafting and Executing Strategy. Irwin Professional Pub Dimensions; Burr Ridge, Illinois, U.S.A.
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