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Papillomaviridae. Properties of Papillomaviruses Non enveloped icosahedral viroions, 55 nm in diameter Genome consists of circular double stranded DNA Papillomaviruses HAVE NOT been grown in culture, but or Causes will transform cultured cells Genus – Papillomavirus Papilli – pustule

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Papillomaviridae

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Papillomaviridae

  • Properties of Papillomaviruses

  • Non enveloped icosahedral viroions, 55 nm in diameter

  • Genome consists of circular double stranded DNA

  • Papillomaviruses HAVE NOT been grown in culture, but or

  • Causes will transform cultured cells

  • Genus – Papillomavirus

  • Papilli – pustule

  • Oma – tumor

  • Causes warts in their natural hosts

  • Papillomaviruses are resistant to ether, high temperatures, and low pH


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Papillomaviridae Diseases

  • Cutaneous papilloma at left

  • Viruses

  • Bovine papillomavirus 1 and 2

  • Cause cutaneous fibropapilloma in cattle and sarcoid in horses

  • Bovine pap 3 causes cutaneous papilloma in cattle

  • Bovine pap 4 causes intestinal tract papilloma in cattle

  • Bovine pap 5 causes teat fibropapilloma in cattle

  • Bovine pap 6 causes teat papilloma in cattle


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Papillomavirus Diseases

  • Fibropapilloma at left

  • Equine pap 1 and 2 cause cutaneous papilloma in horses

  • Canine oral papillomavirus causes oral papilloma

  • Porcine genital papillomavirus causes cutaneous papilloma in swine

  • Ovine papillomavirus in sheep

  • Cottontail rabbit papillomavirus or Shope papillomavirus and rabbit papillomavirus cause cutaneous papilloma in rabbits

  • Human papillomavirus more than 77 types – cutaneous and mucosal papillomas in humans

  • Avian papillomavirus – papilloma in parrots


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Papillomatosis

  • Fibropapilloma at left

  • Papillomaviruses produce warts on the skina dn mucouse memmbranes in mah different species.

  • Only those affecting Cattle, horses and dogs are of veterinary significance (in this course).

  • Papillomaviruses are usually species and site specific. Serologic crossreactivity has not been detected among papillomaviruses of different species.

  • Papillomas develop after the introduction of virus through abrasions of the skin


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Pathogenesis

  • Virus infection initially occurs in the ACTIVELY DIVIDING BASAL CELLS IN THE STRATUM GERMINATIVUM.

  • Virus-induced hyperplasia – due to a virus encoded protein – results in increased basal cell division and delayed maturation of cells in the stratum spinosum

  • The cells subsequently undergo degeneration and hyperkeratinization, aggregating into nascent papillomas

  • Virus accumulation and associated cytopathology are most noticeable in the stratum granulosum.

  • Virions are shed with exfoliated cells of the stratum corneum of the skin or non-keratinized cells of the mucosal surfaces


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Pathogenesis- General and Bovine Papillomatosis

  • Most warts usually regress spontaneously within 4-6 months

  • Multiple warts regress spontaneously

  • The level of neutralizing antibody appears to be correlated with the regression of lesions and with protection against infection

  • BOVINE PAPILLOMATOSIS –

  • Warts are more commonly seen in cattle than in any other domestic animal

  • All ages susceptible - Incidence highest in calves and yearlings

  • Etiologic agents – Bovine papillomaviruses 1-6

  • DO NOT CROSS PROTECT

  • Types 1,2,5 – Immunologically related. Cause fibropapillomas

  • Types 3,4,6 – The cause mostly cutaneous papillomas


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Bovine Papillomatosis and Fibropapilloma

  • Transmission –

  • Fomites – halters, nose leads

  • Grooming and earmarking equipment

  • Rubbing posts etc.

  • Venereal – Papilloma seen on the end of the penis of bulls and in the vagina of cows

  • Clinical Features – IP 4-8 weeks

  • Fibropapilloma – fibrous core covered with stratified squamous epithelium, outer layers hyperkeratiniized

  • Lesions vary in size – nodules to cauliflower-like growths – VERRUCA VULGARIS GROWTHS

  • Usually regress in 6-12 months

  • Most common on head, neck and shoulders but can be found on udder, teats and genitalia

  • Young bulls – found on penis NOT prepuce – may interfere with reproduction as bull studs


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Bovine Papillomatosis and Cutaneous Papilloma

  • Cutaneous papilloma – lack fibrous core, usually flat with a broad base –

  • Persistent

  • Papillomas due to bovine Papillomavirus 4 – alimentary tract, urinary tract

  • May progress to Squamous Cell Carcinomas

  • Ingestion of the BRACKEN FERN - PTERIDIUM AQUILINUM appears to be a major contributing factor as a co-carcinogen and immunosuppressive agent in the transition from benign papilloma to invasive carcinoma of the alimentary tract or bladder – chronic endemic hematuria

  • Diagnosis – characteristic lesions

  • Virus particles can be demonstrated in lesion biopsies by TEM or detection using PCR


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Bovine Papillomatosis – Cutaneous form – Type 4- Vaccine with variable results

  • Treatment –

  • Lesions that must be removed for aesthetic/health reasons

  • Surgical excision, cryosurgery with liquid nitrogen is very effective

  • Dry ice may also be used – CO2 @ -80 degrees C.

    • Topical agents may be tried when surgery is not possible

      • Podophyllin 50%, or 2% podophyllin in 25% salicyclic acid and undiluted medical grade DMSO ( CARCINOGENIC!!!).

    • They are usually applied once daily until remission occurs

    • Bovine interferon – alpha has been used to treat cattle


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Canine Oral Papillomatosis

  • Oral papillomatosis

  • Contagious, self-limiting disease affecting the oral cavity of young dogs

  • Can involve all young dogs in a kennel

  • IP – 4-8 weeks

  • Warts begins as smooth white elevations – lips

  • Progress to roughened cauliflower like growths

  • Occur anywhere on the oral mucosa – cheeks, tongue, palate, pharynx BUT NOT PAST the epiglottis or into the esophagus

  • Halitosis, hemorrhage, ptylasim and discomfort observed

  • Many 50-100 may affect mastication and swallowing


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Canine Oral Papillomatosis –Vaccines can be used

  • Spontaneous regression is the norm, however, some may persist indefinitely

  • Secondary bacterial infection of such ulcerated warts may occur

  • Ocular warts – occur on the conjunctivae, cornea and eyelid margins

  • Dogs that have recovered from a crop of warts are refractory to infection

  • Treatment – surgical excision, cryosurgery, electrosurgery may be used

  • Autogenous vaccines may be used – Effective?


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Equine Papillomatosis and Sarcoids

  • Warts are small, elevated, keratinized papillomas around the lips, muzzle, external nares and legs

  • Ages 1-3

  • Range in number from a few to hundreds

  • Growth occurs for 4-8 weeks and then in most horses, warts spontaneously regress within 1-9 months

  • Treatment and control is the same as Cattle

  • Sarcoids – most common skin tumor occurring in horses, donkeys and mules

  • No apparent predilection for sex, age, breed, coat color or season

  • Associated with Bovine Papillomavirus 1 and 2

  • Sarcoids are often multiple, on lower legs, head and ventral abdoment

  • Growths may reach the size of a man’s fist, variable in lshape and bulge under skin

  • Skin is thick, rough and may be ulcerated


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Equine Papillomatosis and Sarcoids

  • They DO NOT metastasize BUT persist for life and are locally invasive

  • Often they recur after surgical removal – difficulty in identifying the junction of the sarcoid with the surrounding tissues

  • Diagnosis –

  • Clinical features and histological examination of biopsy material

  • Treatment – surgical resection – NEVER REGRESS – hyperthermia, laser surgery and cryosurgery


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Preparing Equine and Bovine Vaccines

  • Grind up crop of warts, dilute in 1:10 in salien and filter through gauze

  • Centrifuge solution at 300 rpm for 5 minutesl

  • Formaldehyde is added to the supernatant fluid to a final concentration of 0.5% formaldehyde

  • Vaccine can be stored for up to 4 weeks at 4 degrees C

  • Cattle – inject 5-25 mL (depending on size of animal) SQ can repeat 10-14 days later

  • Horses – Inject 2 mL ID at 14-day intervals for 3-4 injections


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