agents used in anemias hematopoietic growth factors
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Agents used in anemias & hematopoietic growth factors. By: S.Bohlooli, Ph.D. Agents used in anemias. Iron Vitamin B12 Folic acid. Iron. Iron deficiency most common nutritional cause of anemia

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agents used in anemias
Agents used in anemias
  • Iron
  • Vitamin B12
  • Folic acid
slide3
Iron
  • Iron deficiency
    • most common nutritional cause of anemia
    • result from inadequate iron intake, malabsorption, blood loss, or an increased requirement, as with pregnancy
clinical pharmacology
Clinical pharmacology
  • Indication for the use of iron
    • Treatment or prevention of iron deficiency anemia
  • Treatment
    • Oral iron therapy
    • Parenteral iron therapy
oral iron therapy adverse effects
Oral iron therapy adverse effects
  • Nausea
  • Epigastric discomfort
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
clinical toxicity
Clinical toxicity
  • Acute iron toxicity
    • Necrotizing gastroenteritis
    • Vomiting, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea
    • Followed by shock, lethargy, dyspnea
    • Severe metabolic acidosis, coma, death
  • Chronic iron toxicity (hemochromatosis)
    • Deposit of iron in the heart, liver, pancreas
    • Can lead to organ failure and death
vitamin b12 clinical pharmacology
Vitamin B12: clinical pharmacology
  • Treat or prevent deficiency
    • Megaloblastic anemia
    • Neurologic syndrome
      • Degeneration of myelin sheaths
      • Disruption of axons in the dorsal and lateral horns of spinal cord and in peripheral nerves
  • Most cause of deficiency:
    • Pernicious anemia, partial or total gastroctomy
    • Disease affect the distal ileum:
      • Inflammatory bowel disease
      • Small bowel resection
folic acid clinical pharmacology
Folic acid: Clinical pharmacology
  • Deficiency
    • result in megaloblastic anemia
    • Often caused by inadequate dietary intake
  • Pregnant woman has increased folate requirement
  • A dose of 1 mg is sufficient
hematopoietic growth factors
Hematopoietic growth factors
  • Erythropoietin
  • Granulcyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)
  • Granulcyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)
  • Interleukin 11
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