Agents used in anemias hematopoietic growth factors
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Agents used in anemias & hematopoietic growth factors. By: S.Bohlooli, Ph.D. Agents used in anemias. Iron Vitamin B12 Folic acid. Iron. Iron deficiency most common nutritional cause of anemia

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Agents used in anemias hematopoietic growth factors

Agents used in anemias &hematopoietic growth factors

By: S.Bohlooli, Ph.D.


Agents used in anemias

Agents used in anemias

  • Iron

  • Vitamin B12

  • Folic acid


Agents used in anemias hematopoietic growth factors

Iron

  • Iron deficiency

    • most common nutritional cause of anemia

    • result from inadequate iron intake, malabsorption, blood loss, or an increased requirement, as with pregnancy


The body content of iron

The Body Content of Iron


Pathways of iron metabolism in human beings

Pathways of iron metabolism in human beings


Absorption transport and storage of iron

Absorption, transport, and storage of iron


Iron requirements for pregnancy

Iron Requirements for Pregnancy


Daily iron intake and absorption

Daily Iron Intake and Absorption


Clinical pharmacology

Clinical pharmacology

  • Indication for the use of iron

    • Treatment or prevention of iron deficiency anemia

  • Treatment

    • Oral iron therapy

    • Parenteral iron therapy


Some commonly used oral iron preparations

Some Commonly Used Oral Iron Preparations


Oral iron therapy adverse effects

Oral iron therapy adverse effects

  • Nausea

  • Epigastric discomfort

  • Abdominal cramps

  • Constipation

  • Diarrhea


Clinical toxicity

Clinical toxicity

  • Acute iron toxicity

    • Necrotizing gastroenteritis

    • Vomiting, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea

    • Followed by shock, lethargy, dyspnea

    • Severe metabolic acidosis, coma, death

  • Chronic iron toxicity (hemochromatosis)

    • Deposit of iron in the heart, liver, pancreas

    • Can lead to organ failure and death


Vitamin b12

Vitamin B12


The absorption and distribution of vitamin b 12

The absorption and distribution of vitamin B12


Enzymatic reactions that use vitamin b12

Enzymatic reactions that use vitamin B12


Enzymatic reactions that use folate

Enzymatic reactions that use folate


Vitamin b12 clinical pharmacology

Vitamin B12: clinical pharmacology

  • Treat or prevent deficiency

    • Megaloblastic anemia

    • Neurologic syndrome

      • Degeneration of myelin sheaths

      • Disruption of axons in the dorsal and lateral horns of spinal cord and in peripheral nerves

  • Most cause of deficiency:

    • Pernicious anemia, partial or total gastroctomy

    • Disease affect the distal ileum:

      • Inflammatory bowel disease

      • Small bowel resection


Folic acid

Folic Acid


Enzymatic reactions that use folate1

Enzymatic reactions that use folate


Folic acid clinical pharmacology

Folic acid: Clinical pharmacology

  • Deficiency

    • result in megaloblastic anemia

    • Often caused by inadequate dietary intake

  • Pregnant woman has increased folate requirement

  • A dose of 1 mg is sufficient


Hematopoietic growth factors

Hematopoietic growth factors

  • Erythropoietin

  • Granulcyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)

  • Granulcyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)

  • Interleukin 11


Clinical uses of hematopoietic growth factors

Clinical Uses of Hematopoietic Growth Factors


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