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Parenting . “The toughest job you’ll ever love.”. Purposes. Across cultures, there are three elements of rearing children: Protection Preparation/teaching the young to be able to function as adults Instill the larger culture into the next generation. Parenting Styles.

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parenting

Parenting

“The toughest job you’ll ever love.”

purposes
Purposes
  • Across cultures, there are three elements of rearing children:
  • Protection
  • Preparation/teaching the young to be able to function as adults
  • Instill the larger culture into the next generation
parenting styles
Parenting Styles

Through her studies in the 1960s, Diana Baumrind identified four components that are important in parenting:

  • Strategies for discipline
  • Warmth and nurturance

3. Communication

4. Expectations of maturity and control

parenting styles1
Parenting Styles
  • From her research, Baumrind determined that three different styles of parenting (Baumrind, 1967). Through further research, a fourth one was added (Maccoby and Martin, 1983).
parenting styles2
Parenting Styles
  • Authoritarian (aka dictatorial)
  • Parents have lots of rules, with punishments for failure to follow
  • High demands and expectations from the children
  • Children powerless
  • “Because I said so”
  • Children in this situation tend to be obedient and proficient, but lack self-esteem and social competence
slide6

2. Authoritative (aka Democratic)

  • Establish rules, but offer explanations for them
  • Children can attempt to discuss rules/expectations, but parents retain final control
  • Set clear standards
  • Seek to correct behavior versus punishing it
  • Children tend to be happier, capable, and successful (Maccoby, 1982)
slide7

3. Permissive

  • Lack of rules and/or discipline
  • Low expectations
  • Parents want to be “friends” rather than authority figures
  • Children tend to be low performers and unhappy. Also have issues with authority
slide8

4. Uninvolved

  • While the basic needs are usually met, parents are generally detached from their children’s lives
  • Neglect
  • Surrogate (e.g. nannies, boarding schools, television)
  • Children tend to lack discipline, competence, and esteem
criticisms of baumrind
Criticisms of Baumrind
  • Data supporting Baumrind based correlational support, not experimental causation.
  • Baumrind’s theory not supported by cross-cultural results (Bernstein, 2011).
  • Research does exist to support cross-cultural superiority of authoritarian parenting (Querido et al, 2002).
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