Parenting
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Parenting . “The toughest job you’ll ever love.”. Purposes. Across cultures, there are three elements of rearing children: Protection Preparation/teaching the young to be able to function as adults Instill the larger culture into the next generation. Parenting Styles.

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Parenting

Parenting

“The toughest job you’ll ever love.”


Purposes
Purposes

  • Across cultures, there are three elements of rearing children:

  • Protection

  • Preparation/teaching the young to be able to function as adults

  • Instill the larger culture into the next generation


Parenting styles
Parenting Styles

Through her studies in the 1960s, Diana Baumrind identified four components that are important in parenting:

  • Strategies for discipline

  • Warmth and nurturance

    3. Communication

    4. Expectations of maturity and control


Parenting styles1
Parenting Styles

  • From her research, Baumrind determined that three different styles of parenting (Baumrind, 1967). Through further research, a fourth one was added (Maccoby and Martin, 1983).


Parenting styles2
Parenting Styles

  • Authoritarian (aka dictatorial)

  • Parents have lots of rules, with punishments for failure to follow

  • High demands and expectations from the children

  • Children powerless

  • “Because I said so”

  • Children in this situation tend to be obedient and proficient, but lack self-esteem and social competence


2. Authoritative (aka Democratic)

  • Establish rules, but offer explanations for them

  • Children can attempt to discuss rules/expectations, but parents retain final control

  • Set clear standards

  • Seek to correct behavior versus punishing it

  • Children tend to be happier, capable, and successful (Maccoby, 1982)


3. Permissive

  • Lack of rules and/or discipline

  • Low expectations

  • Parents want to be “friends” rather than authority figures

  • Children tend to be low performers and unhappy. Also have issues with authority


4. Uninvolved

  • While the basic needs are usually met, parents are generally detached from their children’s lives

  • Neglect

  • Surrogate (e.g. nannies, boarding schools, television)

  • Children tend to lack discipline, competence, and esteem


Criticisms of baumrind
Criticisms of Baumrind

  • Data supporting Baumrind based correlational support, not experimental causation.

  • Baumrind’s theory not supported by cross-cultural results (Bernstein, 2011).

  • Research does exist to support cross-cultural superiority of authoritarian parenting (Querido et al, 2002).


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