External anatomy iii lecture 12
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External Anatomy III Lecture 12. Insects have evolved for more than 350 million years resulting in: Diverse biology & ecology Diverse morphology. Modification of abdomen. Moth. Ichneumon wasp. Katydid. Modification of legs. digging. grasping. grooming. pollen collecting. raptorial.

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External Anatomy III Lecture 12

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External Anatomy IIILecture 12


  • Insects have evolved for more than 350 million years resulting in:

  • Diverse biology & ecology

  • Diverse morphology


Modification of abdomen

Moth

Ichneumon wasp

Katydid


Modification of legs

digging

grasping

grooming

pollen collecting

raptorial


Modification of wings

elytron

tegmen

hemelytron

haltere


Modification of mouthparts

Butterfly

Mosquito

Honey bee


Modification of antennae

Moniliform

Clavate

Filiform

Serrate

Pectinate

Flabellate

Plumose

Aristate

Geniculate


Insect Locomotion

  • Walking

  • Jumping

  • Flying


  • Walking:

  • Protraction – complete movement forwards of the whole limb relative to its articulation with the body

  • Retraction – the backward movement of the leg relative to its articulation between the time the foot is placed on the ground and the time it is raised

  • Tripod movement – one tripod (fore and hind legs on one side and mid leg of the opposite side) protracts while the other tripod retracts

  • Romaleaexample


  • Jumping:

  • Rapid release of energy stored in the muscle and in the cuticle

  • Hind leg– Orthoptera, Siphonaptera, Homoptera and some beetles

  • Modified abdominal appendages (furca) – Collembola

  • Thoracic arch – click beetles


http://whyfiles.org/2013/got-gears-lets-leap-says-the-leafhopper/


Flying:

Direct flight system

- flight muscle directly connected to wings

- upward stroke achieved by contraction of muscles attached to the wing base inside the pivotal point

- downward stroke achieved by contraction of muscles attached to the wing base outside the pivotal point contraction

- Odonata


Flying:

Indirect flight system

- no muscle-to-wing connection

- wings stroke due to deformation of thorax

- upward stroke achieved by contraction of dorso-ventral muscle which depresses tergum

- downward stroke achieved by contraction of dorsal longitudinal muscle which deforms the thorax and lifts tergum

- Most insects


Flying:

Indirect flight system

- no muscle-to-wing connection

- wings stroke due to deformation of thorax

- upward stroke achieved by contraction of dorso-ventral muscle which depresses tergum

- downward stroke achieved by contraction of dorsal longitudinal muscle which deforms the thorax and lifts tergum

- Most insects


  • Wing beat frequency:

  • Synchronous muscle – contacts once per nerve impulse

  • Asynchronous muscle – contracts many times per nerve impulse


Keeping wings together for flight (wing coupling)

Mecoptera

Lepidoptera

Lepidoptera

Lepidoptera

Hymenoptera

hamuli


  • Haltere:

  • Modified hind wings of Diptera

  • Sense organ concerned with the maintenance of stability in flight


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