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Cellular Respiration. ATP Power . Adenosine triphosphate ATP powers almost all cell and body activities. Making ATP in the body. Cellular respiration : process of harvesting energy from sugars GOAL : Take electrons from sugars and use their energy to make ATP. Two steps :

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Presentation Transcript

Atp power
ATP Power

  • Adenosine triphosphate

  • ATP powers almost all cell and body activities


Making atp in the body
Making ATP in the body

  • Cellular respiration: process of harvesting energy from sugars

  • GOAL: Take electrons from sugars and use their energy to make ATP.

  • Two steps:

    • Glycolysis: anaerobic process that occurs in the cytoplasm of a cell

    • Aerobic respiration: aerobic process that occurs in the mitochondria of a cell; includes electron transport & Krebs Cycle


High-energy electrons carried by NADH

GLYCOLYSIS

ELECTRONTRANSPORT CHAINAND CHEMIOSMOSIS

KREBSCYCLE

Glucose

Pyruvicacid

Cytoplasmicfluid

Mitochondrion


Glycolysis
Glycolysis

  • Location: Cytoplasm

  • Major Reactants:

    • 1 Glucose molecule (C6H12O6)

    • 2 ATPs (for energy)

  • Products:

    • 4 ATPs (energy storing) – only a net yield of 2 ATPs

    • 2 Pyruvate (energy storing)

  • Continues to Krebs Cycle to get remaining energy out of the pyruvate molecules


Krebs cycle aerobic
Krebs Cycle (Aerobic)

  • Location: Mitochondrial matrix

  • Pre-reaction: Pyruvate reacts with coenzyme A to form an intermediate compound, acetyl CoA.

  • Reactants:

    • Acetyl CoA

  • Major Products:

    • 6 CO2 molecules (waste product)

    • 8 NADHs (moves on to Electron transport chain to make more ATP)

    • 2FADH2 (moves on to Electron transport chain to make more ATP)

    • 2 ATPs


Electron transport chain chemiosmosis aerobic
Electron transport chain & chemiosmosis (Aerobic)

  • Location: Mitochondrial membrane

  • Reactants:

    • High energy electrons from glycolysis

    • NADH from Krebs cycle

    • FADH2 from Krebs cycle

    • O2

  • Products:

    • Up to 32-34 ATPs

    • Water molecule


Review
Review –

  • 1 glucose molecule produces up to 38 ATP molecules

Cytoplasmic fluid

Mitochondrion

Electron shuttleacrossmembranes

KREBSCYCLE

GLYCOLYSIS

2AcetylCoA

KREBSCYCLE

ELECTRONTRANSPORT CHAINAND CHEMIOSMOSIS

2Pyruvicacid

Glucose

by substrate-levelphosphorylation

used for shuttling electronsfrom NADH made in glycolysis

by substrate-levelphosphorylation

by chemiosmoticphosphorylation

Maximum per glucose:


Anaerobic respiration
Anaerobic Respiration

  • AKA: Fermentation

  • If oxygen is not available, cells can use glycolysis alone to produce small amounts of ATP.

  • Two methods of fermentation:

    • Lactic acid fermentation:

      • Enzymes convert pyruvate into lactic acid.

      • Very little ATP is produced.

      • Skeletal muscles produce lactic acid when oxygen supply is low. Lactic acid builds up to make muscles sore.

    • Alcohol fermentation:

      • Occurs in yeast and bacteria

      • Converts pyruvate into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide


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