The Motivational Basis of Effective Performance and Well-being
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The Motivational Basis of Effective Performance and Well-being Edward L. Deci. Motivation Concerns the Energy for Action It’s what Moves People to Behave. The Traditional View: Motivation is unitary The Differentiated View: There are types of motivation that function differently.

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Motivation Concerns Well-being

the Energy for Action

It’s what Moves People to Behave


The Traditional View: Well-beingMotivation is unitary

The Differentiated View: There are types of motivation that function differently


Central theoretical aspect of sdt
Central Theoretical Aspect of SDT Well-being

  • SDT is a motivational theory, that differentiates autonomous and controlled types of motivation

  • Autonomous Motivation

  • When a person fully endorse a behavior and experiences volition and choice.

  • Controlled Motivation

  • When a person feels coerced or seduced into behaving, with the experience of pressure and obligation.


Outcomes associated with high autonomous motivation
Outcomes Associated With High Autonomous Motivation Well-being

  • Greater persistence

  • More flexibility and creativity

  • Better heuristic performance

  • More interest/enjoyment

  • Better mental health and well-being

  • Better physical health

  • Higher quality of close personal relationships

  • Clearly, support for autonomy has important functional effects

    • Across the Life Span

    • Across Genders

    • Across SES

    • Across Cultures


Outcomes associated with high controlled motivation
Outcomes Associated With Well-beingHigh Controlled Motivation

  • Compliance if the reward is desired

  • Defiance when the control is too great

  • Short-term rote learning

  • Alienation and disaffiliation

  • Diminished well-being

  • Poorer quality personal relationships


Additional key aspect of sdt the basic psychological needs

Feeling cared for, connected to, Well-being

sense of belonging with others

Relatedness

Sense of effectance and confidence

in one’s context

Competence

Behave in accord with abiding

values and interests; actions would be

reflectively self-endorsed

Autonomy

Additional Key Aspect of SDT:The Basic Psychological Needs


  • Basic Psychological Needs Well-being

  • Evolved necessities for healthy development

  • Satisfaction of these needs promotes autonomous motivation and psychological well-being

  • Thwarting of the needs leads to controlled motivation or amotivation, and to ill-being

  • Needs are not necessarily consciously valued or pursued, but failing to satisfy them still has negative consequences

  • They are universal, not culturally specific



  • Autonomous Motivation Well-being

  • Includes intrinsically motivated behaviors

  • Includes extrinsically motivated behaviors that have been fully internalized



Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic Motivation Diminish it?

  • Doing an activity because it is interesting and enjoyable

  • Satisfies people’s basic psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness

  • It’s the prototype of autonomy


Extrinsic rewards
Extrinsic Rewards Diminish it?

Doing an activity specifically because it leads to a separate consequence such as a reward, avoidance of a punishment, or social approval.


What happens to people s intrinsic motivation for an activity when they are rewarded for doing it
What Happens to People’s Intrinsic Motivation for an Activity When They are Rewarded for Doing it?


  • The First Reward Studies Activity When They are Rewarded for Doing it?

  • Monetary rewards to college students decreased intrinsic motivation for a puzzle-solving activity (Deci, 1971)



  • Other Negative Effects of Rewards Intrinsic Motivation

  • Tangible Rewards:

  • Create more rigid thinking and poorer problem solving.

  • Lead people to take the shortest route to the rewards.


Why do tangible rewards undermine intrinsic motivation
Why Do Tangible Rewards Undermine Intrinsic Motivation? Intrinsic Motivation

Because people have a fundamental human need to be autonomous rather than controlled. Chasing the carrot is being controlled, and thwarts autonomy.


Other Extrinsic Motivators That Have Intrinsic Motivation

Negative Effects

Threats of Punishment (Deci & Cascio)

Deadlines (Amabile et al.)

Evaluations (Smith)

Competition (Deci et al.)

Why? Because they tend to control people

externally and thus undermine autonomy.


Some External Events with Positive Effects Intrinsic Motivation

Providing Choice (Zuckerman et al.)

Acknowledging feelings (Koestner et al.)

Why?

Because they enhance people’s experience of autonomy


Positive Feedback Intrinsic Motivation

Increases intrinsic motivation

Negative Feedback

Decreases intrinsic motivation

Why?

Because we also have a fundamental psychological need to be competent



  • When Using Incentives Intrinsic Motivation

  • Don’t use them to motivate.

  • Keep them relatively non-salient.

  • Use them to acknowledge a job well done.

  • Don’t use them to promote maintenance.

  • Be sure the interpersonal environment is supportive.

  • Don’t use controlling language.


Extrinsic motivation internalization can it become autonomous
Extrinsic Motivation: Internalization Intrinsic MotivationCan It Become Autonomous?


Some activities in our lives are not intrinsically interesting, and that’s where extrinsic motivation comes in.


People tend to internalize aspects of the environment (e.g., extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.

Why?

Because they have a need for relatedness


Types of Extrinsic Motivation extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.

External Regulation: No Internalization

* Pressured by external contingencies

Introjected Regulation:Partial Internalization

* Pressured by internal contingencies

* Not true self-regulation

Identified/Integrated Regulation: Full Internalization

* Feel a sense of full sense of autonomy and choice


Autonomous Motivation extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.

Intrinsic motivation + Identified/Integrated regulation

Controlled Motivation

External regulation + Introjected regulation


How can we foster greater internalization and autonomy

How Can We extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.Foster GreaterInternalization and Autonomy?


  • Basic Need Satisfaction extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.

  • and Internalization

  • The social contextual factors that maintain intrinsic motivation are essentially the same as those that promote internalization of extrinsic motivation

  • They are the conditions that facilitate satisfaction of the basics psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness


  • Social Contexts extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.

  • Comprised in part of specific events such as the offer of a reward, the opportunity for choice, or provision of feedback, as already discussed

  • But social contexts can also be characterized as a kind of composite that conveys the general ambience or climate of a situation (e.g., home, classroom, work group)

  • Contexts can be need supportive or controlling.


Need-supportive Contexts extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.


  • Need Supportive Contexts extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.

  • Relate from the others’ perspective

  • Encourage self-initiation & exploration

  • Offer relevant choices

  • Provide meaningful rationale

  • Provide positive and constructive feedback

  • Need support satisfies basic psychological needs and promotes autonomous motivation


Controlling Contexts extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.

  • Pressure people (through coercion or seduction) to perform as you demand, with

  • Threats

  • Rewards

  • Demanding language

  • Evaluations and criticism

  • They undermine autonomous motivation and promote controlled motivation


Need support in management
Need Support in Management extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.


Path analysis of basic need satisfaction work performance and adjustment in banks
Path Analysis of Basic Need Satisfaction, extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.Work Performance, and Adjustment in Banks

Work Performance Evaluation

.24

.57

Work-Related Autonomy Competence Relatedness

Manager’s Need Support

.57

Well-Being and Mental Health

Baard, Deci, and Ryan (2004)

N=495


Research in organizations an intervention study
Research in Organizations: extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.An Intervention Study


The Intervention in a Fortune 500 Company extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.

Intervention at the Branch Level (200 employees) Included 13 Days of an External Change Agent Working with the Managerial Team (Branch Manager and 8 Field Managers) Over a Ten-Week Period

1 Day with the Branch Manager

5 Days working with the Management Team, off-site

7 Days Working with Individual Field Managers and Their Teams of about 18 Technicians


  • Training Meetings for Management Team extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others. (Five Days Total)

  • Learn to acknowledge subordinates’ perspective (their needs, feelings, and beliefs)

  • Facilitate subordinates taking more initiative by providing choice and encouraging experimentation

  • Learn to provide informational feedback (honest feedback not intended to criticize or control)


Managers need support before and after the intervention
Managers Need Support Before and After the Intervention extrinsic motivation) that are endorsed by important others.


Radiation of Treatment: Overall Positive Effects on Employees

Including Improvements in:

Trust in Corporation

Satisfaction with Job Characteristics


Summary
Summary Employees

  • Autonomous and controlled motivations are very different.

  • Support for the three needs promotes autonomous motivation.

  • Need support and autonomous motivation yield enhanced learning, performance, persistence, and well-being.



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